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NECO GCE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 2017

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    NEXT EXAMINATION

    GOVERNMENT

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    Govt
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    ===================================

    GOVERNMENT THEORY - ANSWER
    7)
    i ) Employment opportunity- Many qualified citizens of member countries have found employment with the Commonwealth of Nations after scaling through the required qualification process. This has put food on their tables
    ii) Promotes education - Some member states have consistently offered scholarships to citizens of other members states to pursue courses in higher learning.
    iii ) Promotion of Democracy - The Commonwealth of Nations has been consistent in sending election observer teams to member states to monitor their elections. This , among other things , is to ensure free and fair elections thereby promoting democracy in member
    iv ) Military Assistance- The wealthy member states of the Commonwealth sometimes provide military hardware to the less developed member states to boost the equipment level of the armies of those countries . They also help in the training and re -training of officers and men from other member states .


    ===================================

    5)
    1) A military coup ( carried out by Maj .
    Nzeogwu which led to the death of Tafawa
    Belewa , etc )
    2) A counter- coup ( led by Gowon , which led
    to the brutal murder of Aguiyi Ironsi , Fajuyi,
    etc )
    3) The 1966 anti - Igbo pogrom in the north
    ( persecution of Igbo people living in Northern
    Nigeria ) - this is the imminent cause of the
    Nigerian civil war according to local and
    foreign war historians .


    ===================================

    6a )
    The age -grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age -group . The senior age - group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks , while the junior age -group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties
    .
    6b)
    Igbos
    - -The Title Holders
    - -Village Assembly
    - -Age - Grade Society
    - -The Judiciary
    Hausa
    - -District Administration
    - -Supreme Headquarters
    - -Village Heads
    - -Legislative Functions
    - -Executive Functions
    - -Judicial Functions



    ===================================

    2)
    i ) Community taxes- It is a poll tax paid by every male adult of tax paying age and varied from Local council to local council . Infant , it is a capitations tax ie it is paid by every ale adult whether the person is unemployed , self employed .
    ii) Libenses and fees- derive substantial revenue from fees, such fees are in respect of the use of council property such as municipal hall for social activities , market premises and stalls motor parks slaughter houses , wheel barrow and liquor shops charges are also made in respect of marriage , bicycle and dog licensees birth and death registration .
    iii ) Federal and state statutory allocation-This is a percentage of the local government get from national cake. The new statutory allocation are as follows Federal government 54. 68 percent state government 20. 60. Percent

    ===================================
    4a )
    Zero party system may be defined as a type of governmental political arrangement in which political parties are permitted to operate for the purpose of forming a government on political party basis .

    4b)
    i ) Politically stable government -
    In a one -party , there is no change of government and one individual can lead the government for a long time before the button is transferred to another person.
    ii) Ensures continuous economic development - In a one -party state , since the government stays in power for a very long time , it is able to draw economic programmes for the state and implement them without any interference .
    iii ) Allows for speedy decision -making
    One -party system allows for quick decision making . This is because there is no other body to consult and reach compromises with . As soon as the party takes the decision , that is the final and has to be implemented.
    iv ) It is not divisive - In a one - party system , divisive tendencies are eliminated or brought to the barest minimum . This is most helpful in Africa where most time parties are formed on ethnic , tribal and religious lines .
    v) Ensures national integration
    Another advantage of a one - party system is that the entire nation is able to rally round the only party regardless of their ethnic , religious and cultural differences .
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    GOVERNMENT THEORY - ANSWER
    7)
    i ) Employment opportunity- Many qualified citizens of member countries have found employment with the Commonwealth of Nations after scaling through the required qualification process. This has put food on their tables
    ii) Promotes education - Some member states have consistently offered scholarships to citizens of other members states to pursue courses in higher learning.
    iii ) Promotion of Democracy - The Commonwealth of Nations has been consistent in sending election observer teams to member states to monitor their elections. This , among other things , is to ensure free and fair elections thereby promoting democracy in member
    iv ) Military Assistance- The wealthy member states of the Commonwealth sometimes provide military hardware to the less developed member states to boost the equipment level of the armies of those countries . They also help in the training and re -training of officers and men from other member states .


    ===================================

    5)
    1) A military coup ( carried out by Maj .
    Nzeogwu which led to the death of Tafawa
    Belewa , etc )
    2) A counter- coup ( led by Gowon , which led
    to the brutal murder of Aguiyi Ironsi , Fajuyi,
    etc )
    3) The 1966 anti - Igbo pogrom in the north
    ( persecution of Igbo people living in Northern
    Nigeria ) - this is the imminent cause of the
    Nigerian civil war according to local and
    foreign war historians .


    ===================================

    6a )
    The age -grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age -group . The senior age - group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks , while the junior age -group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties
    .
    6b)
    Igbos
    - -The Title Holders
    - -Village Assembly
    - -Age - Grade Society
    - -The Judiciary
    Hausa
    - -District Administration
    - -Supreme Headquarters
    - -Village Heads
    - -Legislative Functions
    - -Executive Functions
    - -Judicial Functions



    ===================================

    2)
    i ) Community taxes- It is a poll tax paid by every male adult of tax paying age and varied from Local council to local council . Infant , it is a capitations tax ie it is paid by every ale adult whether the person is unemployed , self employed .
    ii) Libenses and fees- derive substantial revenue from fees, such fees are in respect of the use of council property such as municipal hall for social activities , market premises and stalls motor parks slaughter houses , wheel barrow and liquor shops charges are also made in respect of marriage , bicycle and dog licensees birth and death registration .
    iii ) Federal and state statutory allocation-This is a percentage of the local government get from national cake. The new statutory allocation are as follows Federal government 54. 68 percent state government 20. 60. Percent

    ===================================
    4a )
    Zero party system may be defined as a type of governmental political arrangement in which political parties are permitted to operate for the purpose of forming a government on political party basis .

    4b)
    i ) Politically stable government -
    In a one -party , there is no change of government and one individual can lead the government for a long time before the button is transferred to another person.
    ii) Ensures continuous economic development - In a one -party state , since the government stays in power for a very long time , it is able to draw economic programmes for the state and implement them without any interference .
    iii ) Allows for speedy decision -making
    One -party system allows for quick decision making . This is because there is no other body to consult and reach compromises with . As soon as the party takes the decision , that is the final and has to be implemented.
    iv ) It is not divisive - In a one - party system , divisive tendencies are eliminated or brought to the barest minimum . This is most helpful in Africa where most time parties are formed on ethnic , tribal and religious lines .
    v) Ensures national integration
    Another advantage of a one - party system is that the entire nation is able to rally round the only party regardless of their ethnic , religious and cultural differences .
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    NEXT EXAMINATION

    GEOGRAPHY PAPER III & I (objectives and practical)

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    GEOGRAPHY ANSWERS LOADING.....
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    Geography - Obj

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    GEOGRAPHY ANSWERS


    ================================

    2a )
    Line of latitude a notional circle of constant latitude on the earth 's surface parallel to the equator .

    2b)
    degrees of latitude into minutes and seconds . Each degree contains 60 minutes , while each minute contains 60 seconds . Simply divide by 60 the distance a degree covers to find the distance a minute covers , and divide by 60 again to find the distance a second covers

    2c )
    tabulate
    i )
    - Parallels are also known as latitudes
    - Meridians are also known as longitudes
    ii)
    - The first parallel is the equator . It is latitude 0.
    - Greenwich is the prime meridian ( 0 °)
    iii )
    - Parallels don ’ t intersect .
    - All meridians intersect at two places ; the North Pole and the South Pole .
    iv )
    - Values range from 0 ( the Equator) to 90 ( the north and south poles )
    - Values for longitude range from 0 ( the Prime Meridian ) to 180 degrees
    v)
    - Letters N and S are used to denote the location
    - Letters E or W are used to represent direction

    ================================

    3a )
    DEPOSITIONAL PLAIN​ :
    it is formed by the deposition of materials brought by various agents of transportation such as rivers , wind , waves , and glaciers .

    EROSIONAL PLAIN​ :
    Erosional plains that have been leveled by various agents of denudation such as running water , rivers , wind and glacier which wear out the rugged surface and smoothens them .

    3b)
    i ) Plains facilitate humans to fulfil their needs of food and shelter .
    ii) The smooth surface of plains makes transportation of goods easy for humans .
    iii ) Most of the plains in world have been changed to biggest trade centers of world due to their richness of minerals and raw agricultural materials .
    iv ) plains are called the source of human ’ s needs , civilization and culture . And world ’ s 80% population live on plains .

    3c )
    i ) It is easily exposed to disasters
    ii) The chances of flood are higher in plains than on mountains
    iii ) More diseases are found a plain areas than other areas
    iv ) Plains are a disadvantage as Plants like coffee can 't grow They have only one kind of soil They are prone to natural disasters

    ================================

    7a )
    i ) river overflow
    ii) ice and snow melts
    iii ) strong winds in coastal lands
    iv ) dam breaking

    7b)
    i ) loss of human life
    ii) destruction of crops
    iii ) loss of livestock
    iv ) deterioration of health conditions

    7c )
    i ) planting vegetation to retain extra water
    ii) construction of floodways
    iii ) terracing hillsides to slow flow downhole
    ================================

    5a )
    A landslide is the movement of rock, earth , or debris down a sloped section of land .

    5b)
    i ) Abrasion or corrasion - This is when large pieces of bedload material wear away the river banks and bed .
    ii) Attrition - This is when the bed load itself is eroded when sediment particles knock against the bed or each other and break, becoming more rounded and smaller .
    iii ) Hydraulic Action - This is when the force of water erodes softer rock.
    iv ) Solution or corrosion - This is when acidic water erodes rock.

    5c )
    i ) Slope
    - gravity provides the energy to move the materials .
    - rapid movements ( e .g. landslide , slumping ) are commonly found on steep slopes while slow movements ( e .g . soil creep) are found on gentle slopes .
    ii) Water
    - rainwater acts as a lubricant to weathered materials .
    - rainwater adds weight to weathered materials .
    iii ) Rock structure
    - joints dipping downslope usually assists landslides , rockfalls , rockslide, rock creep. .. . . etc
    iv ) Vegetation
    - lack of vegetation cover to hold the loose particles .
    ================================
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    F/ACCOUNTING OBJ

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    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING THEORY ANSWERS


    4a )
    i ) the companies involved do not necessarily renounce their identity as natural or legal persons , but maintain their independence.
    ii) the companies involved carry out a business , activity or project together , but without the need to change their identities as companies, as would happen , for example in a merger or take over.
    iii ) The most common cases of joint venture are between companies of different nationalities where one of them seeks to enter the market where the other is located , and where to achieve this it is necessary to overcome big trade barriers , make a big investment and Access to the know -how of the market .

    4b)
    i ) A joint venture involves two or more companies joining together in business , whereas in a partnership , it is individuals who join together for a combined venture .
    ii) A joint venture can be described as a contractual arrangement between two companies that aims to undertake a specific task . Whereas , a partnership involves an agreement between two parties wherein they agree to share the profits as well as any loss incurred .
    iii ) A partnership will last for many years until the parties involved have no differences. While a joint venture company will last for only a limited period until their goal is achieved .
    iv ) The members in a partnership can claim a capital cost allowance as per the partnership rules . Whereas , joint ventures can use as much or as little of the capital cost allowance .
    ================================
    2ai )
    Real Account : The accounts relating to all assets and properties are called real accounts .

    2aii )
    Personal Account : The accounts relating to induviduals , firms , associations or companies are known as personal account.

    2aiii )
    Nominal Account : The accounts relating to expenses , losses, incomes and gains are known as nominal accounts .

    2b)
    i ) Managers
    ii) Employees
    iii ) Competitors
    iv ) Government
    v) Creditors
    vi ) Tax authorities
    vii) Financial Analyst
    ================================

    1ai )
    Uncredited cheques : Cheques received by business , paid into bank and debited in cash book but not yet cleared by bank and entered in its record .

    1aii )
    Unpresented cheques : Cheques drawn or paid by business and credited in cash book but these cheques have not yet been presented to bank for payment .

    1aiii )
    Dishonored Cheque is a cheque which is presented for payment and the drawer has insufficient fund in his or her account to cover the cheque which will then be returned to the payee marked “ refer to drawer”

    1iv )
    The term bank charge covers all charges and fees made by a bank to their customers . In common parlance , the term often relates to charges in respect of personal current accounts or checking account.

    1b)
    i ) The name of the firm .
    ii) The names and addresses of the partners .
    iii ) The nature of the business .
    iv ) The term or duration of partnership .
    v) The amount of capital to be contributed by each partner .
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    GEOGRAPHY


    1a )
    -Temperature or weather
    - Availability of natural resources
    - migration
    - industries

    1b)-increase in Diseases
    - increase in Crime Rate
    - increase in Death Rate
    - increase in Migration.

    1c) -Decrease of birth rate/Family planning
    - increase in migration rate
    - decrease in immigration
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    GEOGRAPHY


    1a )
    -Temperature or weather
    - Availability of natural resources
    - migration
    - industries

    1b)-increase in Diseases
    - increase in Crime Rate
    - increase in Death Rate
    - increase in Migration.

    1c) -Decrease of birth rate/Family planning
    - increase in migration rate
    - decrease in immigration
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    NEXT EXAMINATION

    BIOLOGY

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    BIOLOGY ANSWERS



    ( 1ai )
    Sexual reproduction : This is a type of reproduction which involves the fussion of male gametes ( eg sperm cell ) and the female gametes ( eg egg cell) to form zygote which later develops to a young offspring

    ( 1aii )
    - Abstinence
    - Birth Control Sponge ( Today Sponge )
    - Birth Control Vaginal Ring ( NuvaRing )
    - Birth Control Shot ( Depo -Provera )
    - Birth Control Implant ( Implanon and Nexplanon )

    ( 1aiii )
    - Mutualism represents a symbiotic relationship where both species involved benefit from the relationship while commensalism represents a symbiotic relationship where only one organism benefits while the other does not benefit from the relationship
    - Good examples for mutualism include the relationship between bees and flowers as well as humans and digestive bacteria while Examples for commensalism include hermit crabs using dead gastropods for shelter or millipedes travelling on birds

    ( 1b)
    ( i ) Hooks and suckers allow it to hold on tightly to the wall of the intestine
    ( ii) Its flat body gives it a large surface area to absorb food
    ( iii ) It has no need of a mouth or gut as it absorbs already digested food

    ( 1ci )
    [IMG]

    ( 1cii )
    - Evidences from Palaeontology
    ================================

    (2ai)
    (i) Acidification: This is a method of adding acid to a loe acid food. Acid can be used in food to slow down or prevent the growth of disease or spoilage causing organisms
    (ii) Drying of Food: Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or desiccated). Drying inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and mold through the removal of water.
    (iii) Home Canning: Home canning is a way to preserve fresh foods in glass jars and then heating the jars to kill the organisms that would create spoilage
    (iv) Freezing Food: This is a method of preserving food by lowering the temperature to inhibit microorganism growth.

    (2aii)
    (i) Vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. Species of mosquito, for example, serve as vectors for the deadly disease Malaria
    (ii) Refuse can be defined as All nonhazardous solid waste from a community that requires collection and transport to a processing or disposal site
    (iii) Sewage is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical and toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status

    (2b)
    (i) Mineral salts from soil
    (ii) Products of photosynthesis from leaves

    (2c)
    DRAW THE DIAGRAM

    ================================
    3ai
    Grass-->grasshopper -->lizard -->hawk

    ii) Epigeal germination: Here during seed germination, the cotyledons are brought above the ground due to the elongation of hypocotyl. This type of germination is seen in many dicotlyledons like sunflower, castor, bean etc.

    Hypogeal germination : Here during seed germination, the cotyledons remain in the soil due to the elongation of epicotyl. This type of germination is seen in many dicotyledons like gram, pea etc. and monocotyledons like maize, wheat e. t. c


    3bi. Functions of the liver
    1 Deamination
    2 Detoxification
    3 removal of wore out tissues
    4 helps in the storage of vitamins
    5 helps to convert excess glucose in the blood into glycogen


    3c
    Plants cell
    It has chloroplast
    It has cell wall

    Animal cell
    Has no chloroplast
    Has no cell wall

    ================================

    5ai )
    Respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the toad and its environment . Oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide is given off. Every cell of the body consumes oxygen . With the help of oxygen , the assimilated food which is stored within the cells is slowly oxidised .
    The result is the liberation of heat energy , and formation of carbon dioxide and water. Thus when glucose is oxidised , one molecule of glucose combines with six molecules of oxygen to form six molecules of carbon dioxide and six molecules of water

    5aii )
    ( 1) consideration of the oxygen isotopic records of low latitude temperature variations;
    ( 2) discussion of the physical arguments for temperature stability within the tropics;
    ( 3) examination of climate model -derived tropical temperatures ;
    ( 4) examination of model evidence for tropical salinity differences between different time periods in Earth history

    5bi )
    i ) Natality ( birth rate ) : This refers to the rate of given birth to new organisms . This generally ( be it plants or animals ) leads to increase in population .
    ii) Mortality ( death rate ) : This refers to the rates at which organisms die in a habitat . Mortality generally leads to a decrease in population .
    iii ) Immigration ( dispersal ) : This is the movement of organisms from different habitats into a new habitat . This tends to increase the population of this new area .
    Iv ) Emigration: This is the movement of organisms out of a habitat due to either scarcity of food or unfavourable conditions or for breeding purposes . This , however , reduces the population of a habitat .
    V ) Availability of food : The availability of food in a given habitat tends to increase the population of that habitat through rapid rate of reproduction and other organisms coming into feed

    5bii)
    i ) homozygousis when a cell has two identical copies of a gene. An example ofhomozygousis a cell
    ii) heterozygote -is an individual having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes , and so giving rise to varying offspring
    iii ) parasite - an organism that lives in or on an organism of another species ( its host ) and benefits by deriving
    ================================
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    BIOLOGY ANSWERS


    1a )
    sexual reproduction is define as the fusion or joining often male and female or nuclei from different individuals to form a zygote which later develops into an embryo or organism .

    1aii )
    I . Abstaining from sex
    II . Use of condom
    III . Sterilization

    1aiii )
    Mutualism : this is the association where by organisms benefits mutually win which one of them is so dependent upon the other for some critical resources of functions that it cannot survive in given environment without the other
    WHILE Commensalism is the relationship in which one of the partner called commensail benefits while the other called host is neither benefited nor harm
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    Biology - Obj
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    NEXT PAPER

    Thursday 23rd Nov. 2017
    Agricultural Science Paper III & II (Objective &
    Essay)
    2.00 pm – 4.30 pm


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    AGRIC THEORY ANSWER'S




    1a )
    i ) The Act controls the manner in which land is used .
    ii) Land acquire by government would be made easier for urban expansion
    iii ) The legal status of the Nigerian land user becomes that of statutory occupancy
    iv ) The Act empowers the Governor to revoke rights of occupancy for reasons of overriding public interest

    1b)
    i ) Amendment of the land use decree : This will
    decrease land fragmentation . And enable farmers acquire enough land
    to support mechanized and commercial
    agriculture .
    ii) Farmers education : The government should employ more agriculture
    extension workers to educate farmers on
    the use of modern equipment .
    iii ) Training of maintenance technicians : Technicians should also be trained to
    maintain these sophisticated farm
    machines when and where ever they are
    available.
    iv ) Encourage the local manufacture of farming machines : Local manufacturers should also be encouraged to start
    manufacturing these farming equipment .
    v) Improved access to credit : So , credit should be made accessible to
    farmers who wish to procure modern
    farming machines .

    1c )
    - Reducing compaction from heavy machinery
    - helping to create better soil structure
    - preventing soil structure damage created by working wet field

    1d)
    i ) clean planter with a pressure water or high pressure air especially important to wash off all starter fertilizer to prevent erossion
    ii) save all new planter for warranty use referral
    iii ) store in a cool dry place
    iv ) remove seed plate door

    ==================================
    3a )
    Agricultural pollution refers to biotic and abiotic byproducts of farming practices that result in contamination or degradation of the environment
    and surrounding ecosystems, and / or
    cause injury to humans and their
    economic interests .

    3aii )
    i ) Pesticide leaching.
    ii) Leaching, runoff , and eutrophication .

    3b)
    i ) Population increase
    ii) Land tenure system
    iii ) Topography
    iv ) Cultural practices

    3c )
    i ) Irrigation and Rainfall
    ii) Livestock
    iii ) Temperature Increases
    iv ) Carbon Dioxide Increase

    3d)
    i ) biotic and abiotic factors interact in the same fashion .
    ii) The sole purpose is to promote and
    continue life .
    iii ) The continuation of any given biosphere is the interworking of bacteria , sunlight .
    iv ) the CO 2, the soil , the fauna, the rain and all else that compromises the given environment .


    ======================================

    5a )
    taungya is a system whereby villagers and sometimes forest plantation workers are given the right
    to cultivate agricultural crops during
    the early stages of forest plantation
    establishment

    5b)
    i ) They help us breathe .
    ii) They keep Earth cool .
    iii ) They fight flooding .
    iv ) They keep us cool .

    5c )
    i ) They cause reduction in the viability of stored produce
    ii) Site of injuries by insects may predispose crops to disease attack
    iii ) They increase the cost of production during the course of controlling them
    iv ) They render vegetables and fruits unattractive and unmarketable
    ================================

    8a )
    i ) Dairy cattle ie White fulani , Jersey ,Ayrshere ,red poll etc
    ii) Beef cattle ie Sokoto gudali ,Red bororo ,Rahaji ,Ndama etc
    iii ) All purposes ie Muturu ,Shuwa, Azawal ,Biu etc

    8bi )
    - A good reason to cull a bird is if it is very aggressive and severely wounding other animals .
    - culling helps to reduce feed costs of poor producers
    8bii)
    - To reduce the risk of injury and bruising to herd mates
    - To prevent financial losses from trimming damaged carcasses caused by horned feedlot cattle during transport to slaughter

    8c )
    Causative organism : Bacteria ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis )
    Mode of transmission : Breathing of air contaminated germs ,Feed and water contaminated with droppings and litters
    Symptom : Loss of weight
    Control measure : Vaccination

    8di )
    Scoop net

    8dii)
    - Sun drying
    - Smoking

    8e )
    - Put on protective clothing to avoid getting stung
    - Avoid excessive smoking of the hive
    - Never frighten the bees as this makes them wild to sting
    - Never crush bees as this makes the whole colony excited
    ===================================

    9ai )
    Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education .

    9aii )
    i ) Originality in thought , word and action
    ii) He must be a good listener
    iii ) Must be patient with the people
    iv ) Must be honest and transparent

    9b)
    i ) mobilization of saving
    ii) provision of investment avenue
    iii ) proper regulation of funds to agricultural
    iv ) speed up the agricultural growth and development
    v) capital formation

    9c )
    i ) Agricultural advancement is necessary for improving the supply of raw materials for the agro- based industries especially in our developing country .
    ii) The progress in agricultural sector
    provides surplus for increasing the
    exports of agricultural products.
    iii ) agricultural goods and industrial production and a consequent increase in the general price
    level .
    iv ) agriculture sector is the backbone of
    an economy which provides the basic
    ingredients to mankind
    v) agricultural output and productivity tend to contribute substantially to an overall economic development of the country

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    Saturday 25th Nov. 2017
    English Language Paper II (Essay)
    1.00 pm – 2.45 pm

    English Language Paper III (Objective)
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    English Language questions and Answers now available


    Answer ( 1 ) Only In This SECTION A
    ==================================

    1) Write a letter to the president of your country drawing his attention to the high rate of unemployment in the country and suggesting ways of creating job opportunites

    2) write an article suitable for publication in a national daily on the need to promote local industries in your country

    3) Write a story that illustrates the saying: You cannot judge a book by its cover

    4) You are a chief speaker in a debate on the topic : Religious leader have a greater role to play in averting religious crises than the government . Write your argument for or against the montion
    ==================================

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    ENGLISH THEORY ANSWERS


    3)
    A doctor entered the hospital in a hurry after being called in for an urgent surgery .
    He answered the call asap , changed his clothes & went directly to the surgery block.
    He found the boy’ s father pacing in the hall waiting for the doctor.
    On seeing him , the dad yelled :
    “ Why did you take all this time to come?
    Don ’ t you know that my son ’ s life is in danger ? Don ’ t you have any sense of responsibility ?”
    The doctor smiled & said : “ I am sorry , I wasn ’ t in the hospital & I came as fast as I could after receiving the call…… And now , I wish you ’ d calm down so that I can do my work ”
    “ Calm down ?! What if your son was in this room right now , would you calm down ?
    If your own son dies now what will you do ??” said the father angrily
    The doctor smiled again & replied :
    “ I will say what JOB said in the Holy Book ,
    ‘From dust we came & to dust we return , blessed be the name of God ” .
    Doctors cannot prolong lives. Go & intercede for your son, we will do our
    best by God’ s grace”
    “ Giving advises when we ’ re not concerned is so easy ” Murmured
    the father .
    The surgery took some hours after which the doctor went out happy ,
    “ Thank goodness ! Your son is saved !”
    And without waiting for the father ’ s reply he carried on his way running .
    “ If you have any question, ask the nurse !!”
    “ Why is he so arrogant ? He couldn’ t wait some minutes so that I ask about my son’ s state ” Commented the father .
    When seeing the nurse minutes after the doctor left.
    The nurse answered, tears coming down her face:
    “ His son died yesterday in a road accident , he was in the burial when we called him for your son ’ s surgery .
    And now that he saved your son ’ s life , he left running to finish his son’ s burial . ”
    =================================

    5a )
    cohabitation means living together of unmarried people

    5b)
    i ) when a woman has a child
    ii) when a woman is abandoned by her husband .

    5c )
    the irony is blessing in disguise .

    5d)
    i ) it induces divorce .
    ii) It breeds unhealthy competition between husband and wife

    5e )
    divorce is high because there is no law that forbids patriarchy thus if

    5f )
    i ) noun phrase ,
    ii) subject of the verb " are "

    5g)
    i ) metaphor ,
    ii) it means when they begin to fall apart

    5h )
    i ) Uncommon - rare , unusual, exceptional
    ii) deserted - abandoned
    iii ) Emasculates - weakens
    iv ) Submissive - obedient
    v) Promotes - encourages , urges
    vi ) Incentives - rewards
    =================================
    6ai )
    growing in a violent environment

    6aii )
    persona disorder Roles of patriarchy

    6bi )
    subordination and oppression of women

    6bii)
    poor contribution to economic status of women .

    6ci )
    it can cause death of the victim .

    6cii )
    it causes psychological problems
    =================================
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    Obj loading..... keep refreshing
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    Verified Eng -Obj

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    Oral -Obj
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    COMMERCE ANSWER'S LOADING......
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    Commerce Obj
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    COMMERCE THEORY ANSWERS



    3)
    i ) LACK OF INSUFFICIENT CAPITAL - Many West African countries lacks sufficient capitals to cope with the expanding growth of business and the level of capital invested in the business is usually low .
    ii) UNDEVELOPED MARKETS - Markets in West Africa are not well developed to
    accommodate large scale commercial
    activities .
    iii ) ILLITERACY - The high rate rate of illiteracy in West Africa usually affects
    the growth of commerce in the region .
    Many people cannot read or write and
    cannot interacts with foreign traders in
    business .
    iv ) POOR TRANSPORT SYSTEM - Major roads in some part of Africa and other
    West Africa are bad which discourages
    transportation of goods and services
    v) LOW PER CAPITAL INCOME - Majority of people living in Africa and some part
    of West Africa lives below poverty line
    and may discourage people from
    buying and selling.
    ================================

    2a )
    Trade is the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another in exchange for money

    2b)
    i ) land
    ii) labour
    iii ) capital
    iv ) entrepreneur

    2c )
    Advantages:
    i ) higher productivity
    ii) greater cooperation
    iii ) better goodwill
    iv ) lower cost
    v) invention
    vi ) simplified training
    - Disadvantages -
    i ) monotony
    ii) lack of responsibility
    iii ) lack of job pride
    iv ) too much interdependence
    v) limited market
    vi ) low productivity

    ================================

    5a )
    i ) Transportation helps much to the development of different industries , which produce perishable goods , such as fisheries , poultry firms , horticulture , dairy etc
    ii) Transportation helps in mass production . Whether
    iii ) Transportation helps in mass production
    iv ) Without development of transportation neither mass production nor distribution is possible
    v) Transportation has contributed much to the development of economic , social , political and cultural fields and uplifting their condition .

    5b)
    i ) Accessibility – This primarily deals
    with the ease of getting .boarding
    a vehicle . If a mode is not easily
    accessible then it loses its
    usefulness because of its
    unavailability in a certain condition.
    ii) Cost / fare of ticket or cost of
    service – Considering large number
    of trips taking place for different
    purposes and a modern capitalist
    economy , cost becomes one of the
    single most important determining factor . It can also be linked to
    affordability of the user.
    iii ) Fuel efficiency / carbon emission –
    With the growing environmental
    concerns many people and
    companies prefer to chose a option
    with smaller carbon footprint .
    iv ) Speed – This factor is another most
    important and deterministic factor
    depending upon the situation.
    Fastest mode may seem to be best
    option but cost associated with it
    makes it less lucrative , a cheap mode might result in delay and the
    purpose of whole trip may be
    defeated .
    v) Capacity/ Carrying Capacity – This
    is another important factor
    especially for logistic companies , it
    becomes important in case of
    travelling in a group .
    ================================

    7i ) Separate Legal Existence - any group of people can operate a business together in an unincorporated partnership , they remain a collection of individuals who own property and incur debt. In other words it can buy and sell property , hire employees , institute lawsuits and retain attorneys to defend claims against it.

    7ii) Limited Liability - This feature allows
    members the freedom to hire
    employees and conduct high -
    liability business that would otherwise put the members ' personal assets at risk in a lawsuit.

    7iii ) Insolvency Clawbacks - provisions relating exclusively to LLPs allow for a clawback of any “ withdrawals ” ( including drawings , loan repayments and property distributions ) by a Member during the two years prior to an LLP becoming insolvent .

    7iv ) Negligence - if a Member is negligent and a third party suffers loss as a result then the third party could try to take action against that individual Member as well as the LLC

    7v) Personal Guarantees – anyone lending money to an LLP may still require personal guarantees from the Members , as they frequently do with directors/ shareholders of a company .
    ================================


    ================================

    9a )
    A contract is an agreement with specific terms between two or more persons or entities in which there is a promise to do something in return for a valuable benefit known as consideration .

    9b)
    i ) Express Contracts - In an express contract , the parties state the terms, either orally or in writing , at the time of its formation. There is a definite written or oral offer that is accepted by the offeree ( i . e . , the person to whom the offer is made ) in a manner that explicitly demonstrates consent to its terms.
    ii) Implied Contracts - Although contracts that are implied in fact and contracts implied in law are both called implied contracts , a true implied contract consists of obligations arising from a mutual agreement and intent to promise , which have not been expressed in words .
    iii ) Executed and Executory Contracts - An executed contract is one in which nothing remains to be done by either party . The phrase is , to a certain extent , a misnomer because the completion of performances by the parties signifies that a contract no longer exists .
    iv ) Bilateral and Unilateral Contracts - The exchange of mutual, reciprocal promises between entities that entails the performance of an act , or forbearance from the performance of an act , with respect to each party , is a Bilateral Contract
    ================================
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