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NABTEB GCE ANSWER'S 2017

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    NABTEB CHEMISTRY OBJ AND THEORY

    1-10 BDCACCCBDD
    11-20 BCCCBADAAC
    21-30 CCDBADACBC
    31-40 CDDCAACCBD
    41-50 DBCADBACBA



    (1ai)

    In a degenerated orbital there are no two electrons that can have the same four
    Quantum numbers.

    (1aii)

    An ionic bond involves the loose and gain of electrons.



    A covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons by two atoms where both atoms contribute.

    A dativ bond involves sharing of electrons but only one atom contribute the electrons to be shared

    (1bi)

    Periodic law states that atoms are arranged in order Of increase in their atomic number

    (1bii)

    - Does not form common compounds - k10

    - liberates hydrogen from cold water - J3

    - Are halogens - N17

    - Are in the same group - J31L13

    - Forms ions by loss of three electrons - L13

    (1c)

    - Water

    - Ammonia - Triangular pyramid

    - Methane - Tetrahedral

    - sulphur (iv) oxide - linear


    =========================

    (3ai)

    Allotropes are atoms of the same element in the same physical state but in different forms.

    (3aii)

    TABULAR FORM

    Diamond | Graphite
    Transparent. | Blank
    Very strong solid | Soft solid
    Octahedral shape | Hexagonal shape


    (3aii)

    Diamond -> For cutting glass
    For drilling limestones

    Graphite -> For making pencils
    For lubricating metals


    (3bi)

    An, electrolytic cell is made up of an electrolyte, electrodes and sources of electricity where the electrolyte decomposes.


    (3bii)

    2 Faraday deposits 63.5g of copper
    i.e 2x96500c deposits 63.5g of copper

    298,500c deposits Xg of copper

    X = 298,500x63.5 / 2x96500
    =98.211g

    (3ci)

    A reducing agent is the substance that is oxides in a redox reaction

    (3cii)

    They will turn purple permanent to pink.

    (3ciii)

    - Pipeline product manufacturing company in portharcourt

    - Dangote cement in lokoja


    =========================


    (4ai)

    A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that the solvent can take at a particular temperature.

    (4aii)

    A dilute solution contains more solution that solute contain at a temperature.

    (4aiii)


    A super saturated solution contains more than enough solute than the solvent can contain at the temperature.

    (4b)

    Iodine -
    Chlorine - For killing micro organisms
    Alum - For coagulation

    (4ci)

    It reacts with water to form acid

    It changes blue litmus paper to red
    It reacts with ammonia gas to form salt.

    (4cii)

    As an oxidising agent because it reduced to nitrogen gas.

    As an acidic oxide because the product formed are salt and water only.

    (4di)

    Disco sulphate(iii) acid - Hso2

    (4dii) C2HSOH ------->CH3COOH+H20

    (4diii)

    C2HSOH -------> C2H4+H20

    ==============================


    ( 5a)
    Fractionating tower is the place
    where various fractions of crude oil
    are separated based on their boiling
    point

    ( 5aii)
    ( i)Methane
    ( ii)ethane
    ( iii)Buthane

    ( 5aiii)
    H H
    | |
    H --H - C - - C = C -4
    | |
    C |
    H -C -H
    |
    H
    3-METHYL BUTYNE

    ( 5aiv )
    ( i) C 2H 4( g ) +H 2SO4 (aq )---
    >C 2 H 5HSO 4
    ( ii)C 2 H5 HSO 4+H 2 O-->C 2 H5 OH (aq )
    +H 2 SO4( aq )

    ( 5bi )
    The boiling point of the Alkanol is
    much higher even though the two
    compound are of similar relative
    molecular Mass. This is due to the
    presence of hydrogen bonds in
    butane. Although hydrogen bonds
    are not strong, much energy is still
    required to break them before the
    butan-1 -ol molecules can escape as
    vapour

    ( 5bii )
    When a wine bottle is uncorked, its
    contents are exposed to air , causing
    them to oxidize . Bacteria naturally
    present in grapes can turn either
    the sugars in grape juice or the
    alcohol in wine into acetic acid ,
    giving it a vinegar taste ( and
    eventually producing a wine
    vinegar ) .

    ( 5biii )
    ( i)it is used for making vinegar
    ( ii) it is used as a laboratory reagent
    ( iii)it is used for coagulation of
    rubber from latex and casein
    ( protein ) from milk

    ( 5ci )
    Fat are solids usually of animal
    origin while Oils are liquid mainly
    from plants

    ( 5cii )
    Oils can be changed into fat by
    hydrogenation. Margarine is made
    by this process. Oils, usually from
    plants such as oil palm , groundnut
    and soybeans oil, are heated to
    about 180 ° C in the presence of
    finely divided nickel and hydrogen
    is bubbled in at about 5atm .The
    hydrogen is added across the double
    bonds in the saturated carbon
    chains in the oil. The hardened oils
    are then mixed with salt , vitamins,
    skimmed and various fats to form
    margarine
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    NABTEB GCE PHYSICS OBJ AND THEORY ANSWERS FROM MR. MANDINHO

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    Physics OBJ:

    1-10: BDBAADBCBD
    11-20: CACCDDCBBA
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    PHYSICS THEORY:

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    PHYSICS THEORY ANSWER'S

    No4
    IMG-20171201-WA0005.jpg

    IMG-20171201-WA0009.jpg

    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=
    No 2
    IMG-20171201-WA0007.jpg

    IMG-20171201-WA0004.jpg
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    No 2

    IMG-20171201-WA0012.jpg


    No 1
    IMG-20171201-WA0011.jpg
    IMG-20171201-WA0006.jpg

    No 3
    IMG-20171201-WA0008.jpg
    IMG-20171201-WA0010.jpg
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    MATHEMATICS OBJ

    1-10BDBADCDBBB
    11-20BACDCCCACD
    21-30BACCDBABAC
    31-40CCCADBCBCB
    41-50ACCDADACBD





    THEORY ANSWERS LOADING.............. KEEP REFRESHING THE PAGE
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    MATHEMATICS THEORY

    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    1a)
    123.24base8 - ()base10
    = 1*8^2 + 2*8^1 + 3*8^0 + 2*8^-1 + 4*8^-2
    = 64 + 16 + 3 + 2/8 + 4/64
    = 83 + 1/4 + 1/16
    = 83 + 4+1/16
    = 83 + 5/16
    = 83^5/16base10

    1b)
    8^1/3 * 5^2/3 * 10^-2/3
    2^3/3 * 5^2/3 * (2*5)^2/3
    2^1 * 5^2/3 * 2^-2/3 * 5^-2/3
    2^1 * 2^-2/3 * 5^2/3 * 5^-2/3
    2^1-2/3 * 5^2/3-2/3
    2^3-2/3 * 5^0
    2^1/3 * 1
    = 2^1/3
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    2a)
    y=1+2x/x-2
    :- 2x+y = ?
    = 2x/1 = 1+2x/x-2
    = 2x/1+1+2x/x-2
    = 2x(x-2)+(1+2x)/x-2
    = 2x^2-4x+1+2x/x-2
    = 2x^2-2x+1/x-2

    2b)
    if x+1/2 = x-3+5/x
    :- x+2/2 - 5/x = x-3
    x(x+1)-5(2)/2x = x-3
    x^2+x-10 = 2x(x-3)
    x^2+x-10 = 2x^2-6x
    x^2-2x^2+x+6x-10 = 0
    -x^2+7x-10 = 0
    x^2-7x+10 = 0
    x(x-5)-2(x-5) = 0
    (x-2)(x-5) = 0
    x=2 or x=5
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    3a)
    victor investment = N6m
    nasiru investment = N3.6m
    total investment = N9.6m
    proft = turnover-investment
    = Nxm-N9.6m

    nasiru total take home
    = 30%+3.6/9.6*70% = 56.25%
    = 56.25/100*[Nxm-N9.6m]

    3b)
    Victor's collection rate
    =N6m/N9.6m*70%
    =43.75%
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    4a)
    S = n/2{2a+(n-1)d}
    2S = 2an+(n^2-n)d
    2S - (n^2-n)d = 2an
    a = 2S-(n^2-n)d/2n

    4b)
    a=?, S= -890, d= -5, n=20
    but a=2S-(n^2-n)d/2n
    a=2(-890)-(20^2-20)-5/2(20)
    a=-1780-(400-20)-5/40
    a=-1780+380(S)/40
    a=-1780+1900/40
    a=120/40 = 3
    a=3
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    5a)
    X={1,3,5,7,9,11}
    Y={2,3,5,7,11,15}
    Z={3,6,9,12,15}
    U={1,2,3,...15}

    5b)
    A≡X
    b≡Y
    C≡X
    (i)AnBnC={3}
    A^1={4,6,8,10,12,13,14,15}
    B^1={1,4,6,8,10,12,13,14}
    :- n(A^1nB^1nC) = {6,12}

    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    8a)
    2x-1/x^2+2x-15
    i)for zero, numerator = 0
    2x-1=0
    2x=1
    x=1/2
    ii)for undefined fraction, denominator = 0
    x^2+2x-15=0
    x^2+5x-3x-15=0
    x(x+5)-3(x+5)
    (x-3)(x+5)=0
    x=3 or -5

    8bi)
    internal diameter = 12cm
    internal radius = 12/2 = 6cm
    thickness = 2cm
    extrenal diameter = 12+4=16cm
    external radius = 8cm
    i)volume = 2/3πr^3
    = 2/3*22/7{R^3 - r^2}
    = 44/21{8^3-6^3}
    = 44/21{512-216}
    = 44/21{296} = 13024/21
    = 620.19cm^3

    8bii)
    Area of top = πr^2
    = 22/7{8^2 - 6^2}
    = 22/7{64 - 36}
    = 22/7{28}
    = 22*4
    = 88cm
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=
    10)
    TABLE HERE
    IMG-20171204-WA0052.jpg

    x̅ = Ʃfx/Ʃf = 3035/50 = 60.7

    a)mean deviation = Ʃf|d|/Ʃf
    = 748.8/50
    = 14.98

    b)standard deviation = rootƩfd^2/Ʃf
    = root16224/50
    = root324.48
    = 18.01
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    11ai)
    education = 350
    medicine = 150
    engineering = 200
    law = 100
    arts = 100
    total = 900
    angular sector
    i)
    education = 350/900*360
    = 140°
    ii)
    medicine = 150/900*360
    = 60°
    iii)
    engineering = 200/900*360
    = 80°
    iv)
    law = 100/900*360
    = 40°
    v)
    arts = 100/900*360
    = 40°
    11aii)
    % of students admitted into faculty of education = 350/900*100%
    = 350/9
    = 38.9%

    11bi)
    P(B)=3/12 = 1/4
    P(W)=4/12 = 1/3
    P(R)=5/12
    P(one of each ball)=1/4*4/11*5/10* + 1/3*3/11*4/10* + 5/12*3/11*4/10
    = 1/22+2/55+1/22
    = 5+4+5/110
    = 14/110 = 7/55

    11bii)
    P(at least two red)
    = 5/12*P(RRR1)+P(RR1R)+P(RRR)
    = 5/12*4/11*7/10 + 5/12*7/11*3/10 + = 5/12*4/11*3/10
    = 7/66 + 7/88 + 1/11
    = 28+21+24/264
    = 73/264


    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    13a)
    gross income = 2,500,000
    personal allowance = 150,000
    children(3) = 60,000
    insurance(2) 2% of gross = 50,000
    contribution(2) 8% of gross = 200,000
    total = 460,000

    taxable income = 204000
    a)
    Monthly gross pay
    = 2,500,000/12
    = N208333.33

    b)Tax pay
    5% 0f 1st N30,000
    = 5/100*30,000
    = N15,000

    10% of next N30,000
    = 10/100*30000
    = N3,000

    15% of next N50,000
    = 15/100*50,000
    = 7,500

    20% of next 50,000
    20/100*50,000
    N10,000

    25% on remaining = 25/100*(2040000-160,000)
    = 25/100*1880000
    = N470,000

    therefore:
    tax pay = 1500+300+7500+470000+110,000
    = 492,000

    monyhly tax = 492,000/12
    = N41,000

    c)Next pay = 2,500,000 - 49,200
    = N2008000

    monthly next pay = 2008000/12
    = N167333.33
    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=

    15a)
    R=4%
    T=5years
    A=142,000
    I=?
    P=?
    But I=PRT/100 = P*4*5/100 = 20P/100
    I=P/5
    but A=P+I
    :- 142,000 = P+P/5
    142,000 = 5P+P/5
    142,000*5 = 6P
    P = 142,000*5/6
    P = N118333.33
    15b)
    cash price = N82,000
    deposit = N40,000
    instalment = N2,500 for 24months
    :- Total instalment = 2,500*24
    =N60,000
    Total amount paid on hire purchase = 40,000+60,000
    = N100,000
    difference between cash price and hire purchase
    =100,000 - 82,000
    N18,000

    15c)
    ~for the first year~
    Depreciates = 3.5/100*55,000 = N1925
    actual cost in 1st quarter = N53075

    in 2nd quarter
    Depreciate 3.5/100*53075 = N1857.63
    actual cost in 2nd quarter = N51217.37

    3rd quater
    Dep = 3.5/100*51217.37 = N1792.61
    actual cost in 3rd quarter = N49424.76

    4th quarter
    Dep = 3.5/100*49424.76 = N1729.87
    actual cost in 4th quarter = 47694.76.89

    :- at the end of the first year, the bike cost N47694.89

    ~for the second year~
    1st quarter
    dep = 3.5/100*47694.89 = N 1669.32
    actual cost = N46025.57

    2nd quarter
    dep = 3.5/100*46025.57 = N1610.89
    actual cost = N44414.68

    3rd quarter
    dep = 3.5/100*44414.68 = N1554.51
    actual value = N42860.06

    4th quarter
    dep = 3.5/100*42860.06 = 1500.10
    actual cost = N41359.96
    at the end of 2years cost = N41359.96
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    ADVANCE NABTEB MATHS ANSWERS


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    LIT-IN-ENG

    1B.2A.3B.4B.5A.6B.7C.8B.9B.10C.
    11A.12C.13C.14C.15A.16D.17D.18D.19D.20B.
    21A.22C.23D.24B.25C.26C.27B.28A.29C.30A.
    31C.32A.33A.34D.35A.36D.37A.38B.39D.40C.
    41D.42D.43A.44D.45B.46C.47B.48C.49B.50A.
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    ADVANCE ENGLISH ANSWER'S

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    ENGLISH THEORY ANSWER'S [ O LEVEL ]

    SECTION A
    4)
    "Once bitten twice shy" is an old adage. In my case, it became a literal truth.
    I was very mischievous as a young boy. I enjoyed playing pranks and practical jokes on people. I also liked to chase cats and used a handmade catapult to shoot at birds on the trees. My parents did not approve of my behavior and constantly berated me for the mischief I caused. I was even given a good thrashing from my father from time to time. But I did not mend my ways until this incident.

    I had just finished lunch at home and I was feeling very bored. My brothers and sisters, all of them older than I, had not returned home from school. I decided to walk around the neighborhood and I brought my trusty catapult with me.

    Soon, I came to Mr. Lingam's house. His pet dog, a giant Schnauzer, was tied to a post outside his house. I looked around and saw that no one was in sight. I decided to make good use o my catapult and picked a few small pebbles from the ground and aimed at the dog. A few of the pebbles hit the poor dog and it began to howl and help in pain. Eventually, the dog's anger was aroused and it began growling and barking fiercely at me while it strained against the ropes to free itself. I laughed at the dog, feeling amused by my sadistic deed.

    Suddenly, the rope that secured the dog snapped and the dog was free from its bonds. With a few powerful strides the dog was on me. Its teeth sank into the flesh of my calf. I screamed in pain and fright and fell to the ground.

    Luckily, my screams brought Mr. Lingam running out of the house and he managed to free the dog's teeth from my calf. He brought the dog into his house and quickly brought me to the clinic. The doctor gave me an injection and dressed the wound.

    I related the incident to the doctor and Mr. Lingam. The doctor chided me for being cruel to a helpless animal and asked me to be kind and considerate to all creatures in future.

    I learnt my lesson that day. I have since stopped playing pranks and being cruel to helpless creatures.





    SECTION B
    ================================
    5a)
    Each fighter tilt against one another with their heads down, neck hunched and shoulders forwards like a fighting ram

    5bi)
    He aimed to improve his action after a few heads on collision by kicking his uncle in his chin frightfully

    5bii)
    Makenda prevented this by rotating his clenched right hand aloft.

    5ci)
    Maurice's aim was to grab Makenda and throw him away.

    5cii)
    He was beaten black and blue by his uncle who threw his back to his dust.

    5ciii)
    This happened to him because Makenda was stronger, cooler and Older than him.

    5di)
    She also joined Makenda in beating Maurice

    5dii)
    She was described as would be murderess because she was going to kill Maurice if she continued beating him.

    5ei)
    Simile

    5eii)
    it is used to compare the fist of Makenda to a club which is original and it's effects it will have on Maurice

    5fi)
    Adjectival clause

    5fii)
    It qualifies the noun "chairs"

    5g)
    i)Hurled - thrown
    ii)Merely - wholly
    iii)Ex-jailbird - ex-prisoner
    iv)Scared - afraid
    v)Effort - struggle

    ================================

    6i)
    i)waking up early in the morning so as to have few extra minutes to relax before the day really begins
    ii)eating breakfast to increase health and energy

    6ii)
    i)eating nutritional food and drinking a reasonable quantity of water
    ii)avoiding refined foods
    iii)sleeping at the right time
    iv)aerobic exercises and yoga are good for heart and body
    ================================

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    ADVANCE ECONOMICS ANSWER


    1a)
    Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information. While the concept of data is commonly associated with scientific research, data is collected by a huge range of organizations and institutions, including businesses (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), governments (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates) and non-governmental organizations (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).

    1b
    Types of Data: Primary and Secondary data

    There are many ways of classifying data.
    A common classification is based upon who collected the data.
    Primary data: Data collected by the investigator himself/ herself for a specific purpose.
    Examples: Data collected by a student for his/her thesis or research project.
    (In movies) The hero is directly told by the heroine that he is her ideal man.
    Secondary data: Data collected by someone else for some other purpose (but being utilized by the investigator for another purpose).
    Examples: Census data being used to analyze the impact of education on career choice and earning.
    (In movies) The hero reads a fictional account of the heroines ideal man (written for a course in English composition) that seems to describe him accurately. He seeks confirmation from his friends, concluding that he is her ideal man. (He never asks her directly, but assumes the facts are correct).
    Some Advantages of using Primary data:
    The investigator collects data specific to the problem under study.
    There is no doubt about the quality of the data collected (for the investigator).
    If required, it may be possible to obtain additional data during the study period.
    Some Disadvantages of using Primary data (for reluctant/ uninterested investigators):
    The investigator has to contend with all the hassles of data collection-
    deciding why, what, how, when to collect
    getting the data collected (personally or through others)
    getting funding and dealing with funding agencies
    ethical considerations (consent, permissions, etc.)
    2. Ensuring the data collected is of a high standard-
    all desired data is obtained accurately, and in the format it is required in
    there is no fake/ cooked up data
    unnecessary/ useless data has not been included
    3. Cost of obtaining the data is often the major expense in studies
    Some Advantages of using Secondary data:
    The datas already there- no hassles of data collection
    It is less expensive
    The investigator is not personally responsible for the quality of data (I didnt do it)
    Some disadvantages of using Secondary data:
    The investigator cannot decide what is collected (if specific data about something is required, for instance).
    One can only hope that the data is of good quality
    Obtaining additional data (or even clarification) about something is not possible (most often)

    =================================

    2A
    an outcome is the result of a random experiment, like a rolling a die has six possible outcomes (say). However, an "event" is a set of outcomes to which a probability is assigned. One possible event is "rolling a number less than 3"
    ALSO an outcome is a result of a single trial of an experiment while an event is one or more outcomes of and experiement.

    2B
    Example of Event
    When a number cube is rolled, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 is a possible event. When you roll a number cube and toss a coin at the same time, a possible event is a 3 and a tail respectively.

    ================================

    3
    Gross Domestic Product or GDP refers to the economic value of goods and services produced within the nations boundaries, in a particular financial year plus income earned by foreign residents locally less income earned abroad by countrys residents. When the GDP is estimated at current prices, it exhibits Nominal GDP, whereas Real GDP is when the estimation is made at constant prices. Both Nominal and real GDP are considered as a financial metric for evaluating countrys economic growth and development. However, the confusion still exists that which one better indicates the countrys progress than the other. Take a read of this article to know the differences between nominal and real GDP and it may also help you to overcome your confusion.
    Comparison Chart
    Basis for Comparison
    Nominal GDP
    Real GDP

    Meaning
    The aggregate market value of the economic output produced in a year within the boundaries of the country is known as Nominal GDP.
    Real GDP refers to the value of economic output produced in a given period, adjusted according to the changes in the general price level.

    What is it?
    GDP without the effect of inflation.
    Inflation adjusted GDP

    Expressed in
    Current year prices
    Base year prices or constant prices.

    Value
    Higher
    Generally, lower.

    Uses
    Comparison of various quarters of the given year can be made.
    Comparison of two or more financial year can be done easily.

    Economic Growth
    Cannot be analyzed easily.
    Good indicator of economic growth.


    Key Differences Between Nominal and Real GDP
    The basic differences between Nominal and Real GDP are discussed as under:

    Nominal Gross Domestic Product refers to the monetary value of all goods and services produced during the year, within the geographical limits of the country. The economic worth of all goods and services produced in a given year, adjusted as per changes in the general price level is known as Real Gross Domestic Product.

    Nominal GDP is the GDP without the effects of inflation or deflation whereas you can arrive at Real GDP, only after giving effects of inflation or deflation.

    Nominal GDP reflects current GDP at current prices. Conversely, Real GDP reflects current GDP at past (base) year prices.

    The value of nominal GDP is greater than the value of real GDP because while calculating it, the figure of inflation is deducted from the total GDP.

    With the help of Nominal GDP, you can make comparisons between different quarters of the same financial year. Unlike Real GDP, in which comparison of various financial years can be made easily because by removing the figure of inflation, the comparison is made only between the outputs produced.

    Real GDP shows the actual picture of the economic growth of the country, which is not with the case of Nominal GDP.

    =====================================

    5a)
    The term returns to scale refers to the changes in output as all factors change by the same proportion.
    Returns to scale relates to the behaviour of total output as all inputs are varied and is a long run concept.
    Returns to scale are of the following three types:
    1. Increasing Returns to scale.
    2. Constant Returns to Scale
    3. Diminishing Returns to Scale
    Explanation:
    In the long run, output can be increased by increasing all factors in the same proportion. Generally, laws of returns to scale refer to an increase in output due to increase in all factors in the same proportion. Such an increase is called returns to scale.

    5b
    What is 'Economies Of Scale'
    Economies of scale is the cost advantage that arises with increased output of a product. Economies of scale arise because of the inverse relationship between the quantity produced and per-unit fixed costs; i.e. the greater the quantity of a good produced, the lower the per-unit fixed cost because these costs are spread out over a larger number of goods. Economies of scale may also reduce variable costs per unit because of operational efficiencies and synergies. Economies of scale can be classified into two main types: Internal arising from within the company; and External arising from extraneous factors such as industry size.

    =================================

    7
    1. Industrial Policy and the Expansion of the Scope of the Private Sector:
    The industrial policy resolutions introduced by the country have also expanded the scope of the participation of the private sector enterprises in various fields of industrial activity. The industrial policy resolutions of 1956, in its list of industries under Schedule A (exclusively reserved for the public sector), allowed the existing private sector enterprises to continue and expand.

    2. Inter-Company Investment:
    Inter-company investment is considered another important factor for the growth of large industrial houses and growing concentration of economic power. Through inter-company investment, big industrial houses occupy the directorship of a good number of companies and monopolized the decision-making of these companies.

    3. Governments Licensing Policy:
    The licensing policy of the Government has also facilitated the growth of large industrial houses and concentration of economic power. While giving industrial licence, the Government never tried to control the growth of monopoly or concentration of economic power. Rather, the licensing authorities had the tendency to sanction the licenses of new enterprises to experienced person having proven business ability, instead of new entrepreneurs.

    4. Import Duties and Market Protection:
    Indian industries are being protected by the Government from foreign competition through the imposition of heavy import duties and also by banning imports of some commodities. This sort of protection has raised the strength of large business houses in the domestic market.
    The Situation has reached to such an extent that these large houses even pressurized the small enterprises, created artificial crisis of their products for increasing profits, leading to growing assets and concentration of economic power in their hands by speculating the situation.

    5. Planning Process:
    The planned development strategy has provided the opportunity to the large industrial houses to increase their fortunes further.
    The MIC observed, In the period immediately following Independence, the very force which are harnessed to produce the quick industrialisation of the country worked at the same time to concentrate power in industry in a few individuals or families who were already wealthy and powerful every one of these circumstances tended to produce concentration of economic power.

    6. Control over Banking Companies:
    In the pre-nationalisation period, the banking system was mostly under the control of large industrial houses. The major portion of the bank deposits collected from general depositor were mostly used for financing the industries of large industrial houses.
    Thus the commercial banks played an important role in developing monopolies and industrial empires of large industrial houses. After nationalisation even such tendencies are being persisted as the output of the bankers did not changed much.

    7. Credit Policy of the Public Sector Financial Institutions:
    Another important cause behind the growth of monopolies and concentration of economic power in the credit policy pursued by the public sector financial institutions, where they always favoured large industrial houses in advancing loan as compared to that of small entrepreneurs.
    ====================================
    8
    The balance of payments (BOP) records all financial transactions made between consumers, businesses and the government in one country with others
    =======================================

    10
    Definition of Economic Planning If we have to define economic planning in simple words , then we can define it as branch of planning in which nation decides in advance what to be done for the purpose of stability and development of economy. In 21st century, every country has its own economic plans. Even developed countries are also making economic planning for stability of their country because economic planning is fully related to effective utilization of national resources for the benefits of general people of country.
    =================================

    18a)

    What is 'Devaluation'
    Devaluation is a deliberate downward adjustment to the value of a country's currency relative to another currency, group of currencies or standard. Devaluation is a monetary policy tool used by countries that have a fixed exchange rate or semi-fixed exchange rate. It is often confused with depreciation, and is the opposite of revaluation.
    !--break--Devaluing a currency is decided by the government issuing the currency, and unlike depreciation, is not the result of non-governmental activities. One reason a country may devaluate its currency is to combat trade imbalances. Devaluation causes a country's exports to become less expensive, making them more competitive in the global market. This, in turn, means that imports are more expensive, making domestic consumers less likely to purchase them, further strengthening domestic businesses.
    While devaluating a currency can seem like an attractive option, it can have negative consequences. By making imports more expensive, for example, it protects domestic industries who may then become less efficient without the pressure of competition. Higher exports relative to imports can also increase aggregate demand, which can lead to inflation.

    18B
    The Central Banks (CBN) decisions to restrict what gets imported with the oil dollars it provides, and to stop Bureaux des Change from accessing the foreign exchange it sells, has reignited the debate on whether the Naira should be officially devalued or not. Yet devaluation is not even the problem, as it has already partly happened. The reality is that we have a two-tier forex rate with the unofficial one threatening to rise to twice the official exchange rate. A US Dollar, which use to sell for N126 just some few months ago, is now about N197 officially, and costs over N320 in the parallel market. We are at a policy-junction, and the experts are not providing solid advice. President Muhammadu Buhari recently said he has not been convinced that devaluing the Naira is a good idea. He is right, because it would indeed be a disastrous policy. It was tried before, under General Ibrahim Babangida, and it proved a disaster from which we have not recovered, though high oil prices alleviated the pains for some time. Work out the impacts right through
    First, let us consider the advantages of devaluation as proclaimed by the high priests. We are told repeatedly that devaluing the Naira would make our exports attractive, discourage imports, and improve government finances. Over time, investments in export-oriented goods and services would rise along with employment and incomes. These promises are not backed by the long-time experience of any significant nation and are theoretically based on fallacies and myths. Fallacy one: everything else would remain the same. They would not, as devaluation would work itself out right through the economy. It is poor economics to consider only one side of a problem. Fallacy two: our economy is assumed to stand alone, and is not influenced by gloats, shortages in, or policies of, other countries. How others respond would influence the outcomes. These are only two fallacies in the thinking of devaluation priests, but they would suffice in highlighting the myths we are fed with daily. Myth one: devaluation helps exporters. Actually it would not. If, as is the case in Nigeria, manufactures or farmers of exportable goods are themselves importers of a lot of machinery, spares or raw materials, their costs would in turn increase, and they would lose even the current market advantages or penetrations they already have. Globally, manufacturers today actually import many of their inputs. They would end up exporting less because their production costs may end up being higher. Additionally, if the market they are exporting to is itself depressed or saturated, lower prices may not be enough to increase demands or earnings. Also, if they are already producing at full capacity, selling at lower prices only leads to reduced total earnings, unless they expand by buying more machines from abroad. Can they even continue to keep labour costs down when part of the needs of the workers must be satisfied through imports? Myth two: imports would reduce? The flip side of the argument is itself problematic. Imports would certainly look less attractive as we have to buy the dollar with more and more naira. But would total imports decline? Non-essential imports may, and people would try to substitute some items with cheaper, or locally produce ones. Essential imports would continue even at higher costs. Pharmaceuticals, surgical tools, chemicals, reagents, machines and their spares, raw materials and even textiles and foods would be more expensive, but their imports would continue by an elite who have grabbed most of the nations wealth and are used to certain life-styles. It is massive looting and pervasive inequalities that leads to some people buying Brazilian hair attachment for half a million Naira a piece, not because they dont have hair on their heads. Myth three: devaluation would improve the current account. With less imports and greater export earnings the current account balance of a country should improve. But, as we have pointed out, there is every likelihood we would end up paying more for imports rather than less, and may not get any export advantage. The total effect of any currency devaluation depends on the actual elasticities (changes in response to prices) of the supply and demand for those traded goods. The more price-responsive the demand for imports and exports, the greater the effect of the devaluation will be on the countrys trade deficits and, therefore, on its balance of payments; the less elastic the demand, the greater the necessary devaluation required to eliminate a given imbalance. If there are structural reasons keeping these demands and supplies unchanged then, International Economics 101 tells us, devaluation simply leads to more hardships and distortions. Myth four: you first make them poorer, then they can become richer The implicit assumption is that to make our people richer we must first impoverish them. Thus, people earning N18,000 as minimum wage (or $142.85 at N126 to the Dollar) before, should keep on earning that per month.
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