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NABTEB GCE ANSWER'S 2017

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    NABTEB GCE AGRIC PRACTICAL ANSWER'S



    1a)

    To compare the porosity and water retaining capacity of soil types.

    1b)

    A= Glass Tube
    B= Cotton Wool
    C= Water
    D= Trough

    1c)

    i) Get dry sandy, dry clay and dry loamy soil.

    ii) Close one end of the three glass tubes with cotton wool.

    iii) Fill each of the tubes with clay, sandy and loamy soils seperately.

    iv) Place each tubes inside the trough filled with water.


    1d)

    i) They easily absorbs water.

    ii) They are most times a mixture of sand and clay particles with high proportion organic matter.


    iii) They are fertile.


    2a)

    i) Ranging pole.



    2b)

    i) Red
    ii) White


    2c)

    i) Ranging pole:- Are used to mark areas and to set out striaght lines on the field.


    3a)

    i) Peel off the skin of the cassava tubers.

    ii) Wash the peeled tubers.

    iii) Cut the tubers into medium size.

    iv) Take them to the machine and grind them.

    v) After grinding, the cassava powder needs to be packed in long bags and drilled to ultimate dryness in a jack for 2-3days.


    vi) Use a wide sieve, sieve off the fine cassava powder from particles.

    Vii) Then, using a wide frying pan, fry the powder in reasonable portions until it becomes very dry and brittle.

    viii) Pack your garri in a dry place.


    3bi)

    i) White fly

    ii) Cassava mosaic


    3ci)

    i) Bright leaf spot

    ii) Brown leaf spot



    3d)

    i) It allows growth continue successfully.

    ii) it provides yam the ability to grow without bending to the point were it breaks and stops growth.

    iii) It helps to keep the aisles of each row of yam plant clear and decent.

    3e)

    i) Vine cutting method

    ii) Minisett yam production method


    4a)
    I - Egg candler
    II - water trough
    III - feeding trough

    4b)
    I - to test the hatchability of eggs
    II - to provide licestock with waters
    III - to provide food to livestock

    4c)
    I) Eggs are liable to break easily
    ii) candling between 11 and 14 days of incubation interrupts the movement of the embryo to the length Axes of the egg

    4d)
    I) Separate healthy eggs from unhealthy ones
    ii) switch on the equipment to produce rays of lights
    iii) place the eggs on top of the case so that light Will pass through the eggs

    4e)
    I) it is not easy maintain
    ii) it increase the cost of production

    4f)
    I) Lamp
    ii) Light Bulb
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    NABTEB GCE AGRIC PRACTICAL ANSWER'S



    1a)

    To compare the porosity and water retaining capacity of soil types.

    1b)

    A= Glass Tube
    B= Cotton Wool
    C= Water
    D= Trough

    1c)

    i) Get dry sandy, dry clay and dry loamy soil.

    ii) Close one end of the three glass tubes with cotton wool.

    iii) Fill each of the tubes with clay, sandy and loamy soils seperately.

    iv) Place each tubes inside the trough filled with water.


    1d)

    i) They easily absorbs water.

    ii) They are most times a mixture of sand and clay particles with high proportion organic matter.


    iii) They are fertile.


    2a)

    i) Ranging pole.



    2b)

    i) Red
    ii) White


    2c)

    i) Ranging pole:- Are used to mark areas and to set out striaght lines on the field.


    3a)

    i) Peel off the skin of the cassava tubers.

    ii) Wash the peeled tubers.

    iii) Cut the tubers into medium size.

    iv) Take them to the machine and grind them.

    v) After grinding, the cassava powder needs to be packed in long bags and drilled to ultimate dryness in a jack for 2-3days.


    vi) Use a wide sieve, sieve off the fine cassava powder from particles.

    Vii) Then, using a wide frying pan, fry the powder in reasonable portions until it becomes very dry and brittle.

    viii) Pack your garri in a dry place.


    3bi)

    i) White fly

    ii) Cassava mosaic


    3ci)

    i) Bright leaf spot

    ii) Brown leaf spot



    3d)

    i) It allows growth continue successfully.

    ii) it provides yam the ability to grow without bending to the point were it breaks and stops growth.

    iii) It helps to keep the aisles of each row of yam plant clear and decent.

    3e)

    i) Vine cutting method

    ii) Minisett yam production method


    4a)
    I - Egg candler
    II - water trough
    III - feeding trough

    4b)
    I - to test the hatchability of eggs
    II - to provide licestock with waters
    III - to provide food to livestock

    4c)
    I) Eggs are liable to break easily
    ii) candling between 11 and 14 days of incubation interrupts the movement of the embryo to the length Axes of the egg

    4d)
    I) Separate healthy eggs from unhealthy ones
    ii) switch on the equipment to produce rays of lights
    iii) place the eggs on top of the case so that light Will pass through the eggs

    4e)
    I) it is not easy maintain
    ii) it increase the cost of production

    4f)
    I) Lamp
    ii) Light Bulb
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    NABTEB GCE BIOLOGY PRACTICAL


    ================================
    1a )
    i ) stigma
    ii) style
    iii ) filament
    iv ) anther
    v) ovary
    1b)
    i ) lassa fever
    ii) human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV)
    1c )
    i ) discouragement of deforestation
    ii) formation of strict law purnishment for illegal removal of plants and bush burning
    1d)
    i ) transportation of end products of digested food ( plasma )
    ii) they serve as a defence of the body against disease ( white blood cell)
    1e )
    i ) protozoa ( chlamydomonas )
    ii) bacteria ( cyanobacteria = blue - green algae )
    1f )
    ecosystem
    1g)
    i ) prevention of overgrazing
    ii) discouragement of deforestation and planting of canopy trees
    1h )
    i ) it reduces / kills the living organism of the soil surface
    ii) it aid reduction of soil fertility
    1i )
    i ) affect the availability of nitrogen to improve chlorophyl function
    ii) leads to low products of crops
    1j )
    i ) using wood as fuel
    ii) construction of structures
    1k )
    i ) smoke contains some green house gases which deplete the ozone layer
    ii) both affect the aspiration of organism when released to the environment and micro -organisms are voided in dust
    1l )
    i ) Hinge joint
    ii) Hinge joint
    ================================
    2a )
    i ) peeling of tuber to expose the food stored
    ii) grinding of the peeled part
    iii ) squeez of grinded cassava to remove / reduce starch
    iv ) sieving of dry grinded powder to seperate particles
    v) frying of fine practicles
    vi ) final sieving to remove larger particles hence ready for consumption and sales
    2b)
    i ) rodent e : g giant africa rat
    ii) viral e : g mosaic viral
    iii ) insect e : g locust feeding on leave
    2c )
    i ) cassava mosale
    ii) leaf blight of cassava
    2d)
    i ) to enhance better exposure of leaves to sunlight
    ii) to help support the growth of plant stem
    iii ) to help expose the yam base for removal of weeds and maintenance
    2e )
    i ) cutting from ripe tubers
    ii) by sowing the seed
    ================================
    3ai )
    euglena
    3aii )
    1. flagellum
    2. eyespot
    3. paramylum granule
    4. pellicle
    5. nucleus
    6. food vacuole
    7. contractile vacuole
    8. eyespot
    3bi )
    Holozoic
    3bii)
    flagelium
    3biii )
    2. it is used for detecting light
    3. it is used for storage of starch
    6. it is used for food storage
    3biv )
    plant :
    i ) possession of food vacuole
    ii) possession of paramylum granule
    Animal :
    i ) possession of flagellum
    ================================
    4ai )
    IDENTIFY FIGS . IX - XIII WITHOUT REASONS
    IX . cashew fruit
    X . mango fruit
    XI . okra fruit
    XII .cowpea fruit
    XIII. tomato fruit
    4aii )
    LABEL THE PARTS A- J
    a . stalk
    b. cashew fruit part
    c . seed
    d. seed
    e . endocarp
    f .pericarp
    g. mesocarp
    h . epiderm
    i .seed on the placenta
    j .endoderm
    4b)
    ix ) nut ( dry indehicent fruit )
    x) drupe ( true fleshy fruit )
    xii) berry ( true fleshy fruit )
    4bii)
    fg x) man
    fg xii) animal ( e : g cow )
    ================================
    5ai )
    xiv ) axis vertebra ( latera veiw)
    xv) thoracic vertebra ( side veiw)
    xvi ) lumber vertebra ( posterior view)
    5aii )
    1. neutra spine
    2. post zygapophysis
    3. facet for atlas
    4. neutral spine
    5. transverse process
    6. centrum
    7. neutral spine
    8. neutral arch
    9. neutra canal
    10. transverse process
    5bi )
    XIV = it allows the head to be turned easily
    XV = it aids the attachment of the ribs
    XV = it assists in breathing alongside with the ribs
    XVI = it provide attachment for abdominal muscles
    5bii)
    XIV = neck region
    XV = chest ( after the neck at the spinal column )
    XVI = abdominal muscles
    5ci )
    XIV( AXIS )
    i ) absence of centrum
    ii) possession of post zygapophysis
    iii ) absence of transverse process
    XVI( LUMBER)
    i ) presence of centrum
    ii) absence of post zygapophysis
    iii ) possession of transverse process
    ================================
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    NABTEB GCE BIOLOGY PRACTICAL



    ================================
    1a )
    i ) stigma
    ii) style
    iii ) filament
    iv ) anther
    v) ovary
    1b)
    i ) lassa fever
    ii) human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV)
    1c )
    i ) discouragement of deforestation
    ii) formation of strict law purnishment for illegal removal of plants and bush burning
    1d)
    i ) transportation of end products of digested food ( plasma )
    ii) they serve as a defence of the body against disease ( white blood cell)
    1e )
    i ) protozoa ( chlamydomonas )
    ii) bacteria ( cyanobacteria = blue - green algae )
    1f )
    ecosystem
    1g)
    i ) prevention of overgrazing
    ii) discouragement of deforestation and planting of canopy trees
    1h )
    i ) it reduces / kills the living organism of the soil surface
    ii) it aid reduction of soil fertility
    1i )
    i ) affect the availability of nitrogen to improve chlorophyl function
    ii) leads to low products of crops
    1j )
    i ) using wood as fuel
    ii) construction of structures
    1k )
    i ) smoke contains some green house gases which deplete the ozone layer
    ii) both affect the aspiration of organism when released to the environment and micro -organisms are voided in dust
    1l )
    i ) Hinge joint
    ii) Hinge joint
    ================================
    2a )
    i ) peeling of tuber to expose the food stored
    ii) grinding of the peeled part
    iii ) squeez of grinded cassava to remove / reduce starch
    iv ) sieving of dry grinded powder to seperate particles
    v) frying of fine practicles
    vi ) final sieving to remove larger particles hence ready for consumption and sales
    2b)
    i ) rodent e : g giant africa rat
    ii) viral e : g mosaic viral
    iii ) insect e : g locust feeding on leave
    2c )
    i ) cassava mosale
    ii) leaf blight of cassava
    2d)
    i ) to enhance better exposure of leaves to sunlight
    ii) to help support the growth of plant stem
    iii ) to help expose the yam base for removal of weeds and maintenance
    2e )
    i ) cutting from ripe tubers
    ii) by sowing the seed
    ================================
    3ai )
    euglena
    3aii )
    1. flagellum
    2. eyespot
    3. paramylum granule
    4. pellicle
    5. nucleus
    6. food vacuole
    7. contractile vacuole
    8. eyespot
    3bi )
    Holozoic
    3bii)
    flagelium
    3biii )
    2. it is used for detecting light
    3. it is used for storage of starch
    6. it is used for food storage
    3biv )
    plant :
    i ) possession of food vacuole
    ii) possession of paramylum granule
    Animal :
    i ) possession of flagellum
    ================================
    4ai )
    IDENTIFY FIGS . IX - XIII WITHOUT REASONS
    IX . cashew fruit
    X . mango fruit
    XI . okra fruit
    XII .cowpea fruit
    XIII. tomato fruit
    4aii )
    LABEL THE PARTS A- J
    a . stalk
    b. cashew fruit part
    c . seed
    d. seed
    e . endocarp
    f .pericarp
    g. mesocarp
    h . epiderm
    i .seed on the placenta
    j .endoderm
    4b)
    ix ) nut ( dry indehicent fruit )
    x) drupe ( true fleshy fruit )
    xii) berry ( true fleshy fruit )
    4bii)
    fg x) man
    fg xii) animal ( e : g cow )
    ================================
    5ai )
    xiv ) axis vertebra ( latera veiw)
    xv) thoracic vertebra ( side veiw)
    xvi ) lumber vertebra ( posterior view)
    5aii )
    1. neutra spine
    2. post zygapophysis
    3. facet for atlas
    4. neutral spine
    5. transverse process
    6. centrum
    7. neutral spine
    8. neutral arch
    9. neutra canal
    10. transverse process
    5bi )
    XIV = it allows the head to be turned easily
    XV = it aids the attachment of the ribs
    XV = it assists in breathing alongside with the ribs
    XVI = it provide attachment for abdominal muscles
    5bii)
    XIV = neck region
    XV = chest ( after the neck at the spinal column )
    XVI = abdominal muscles
    5ci )
    XIV( AXIS )
    i ) absence of centrum
    ii) possession of post zygapophysis
    iii ) absence of transverse process
    XVI( LUMBER)
    i ) presence of centrum
    ii) absence of post zygapophysis
    iii ) possession of transverse process
    ================================
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    CHEMISTRY ANSWERS

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    Chemistry - Pract
    ================================
    1a )
    i ) burette
    ii) pipette
    iii ) conical flask
    iv ) beaker
    1bi )
    i ) application of 2 to 3 drops of indicator to the base
    ii) titration( rush) of acid into base sonutaneously and swirled ( shaked )
    1bii)
    weak acid vs strong base = phenophthalein
    1ci )
    molarity of B = mass concentration / molar mass = 2. 20/ 0. 25/ 40
    molarity of B = 8.8 / 40
    molarity of B = 0.220 moldm ^ -3
    1cii )
    CaVa / CbVb = Ca = CbVbna / Vanb = Ca = 0. 22* 25 * 1/ 24 .60 * 2= 5. 5/ 49. 2
    Ca = 0 .11178
    Ca = 0 .112 mold ^ -3
    1ciii )
    molar mass = mass concentration / molar concentration = 3. 90/ 0. 112
    molar mass of H 2X = 35gmol ^ - 1
    hence H 2X = 35 = 2 + X = 35
    X = 35- 2
    K = 33
    R . A. Mx = 33 gmol ^ - 1
    ================================
    2ai )
    the ethanedioic acid turns pink or red on adding methyl organe to it
    2aii )
    the hydrated form is efflorescence- when expsosed to air it effloresces and turns yellow due to atmospheric oxidation to basic iron ( iii ) teltraoxosulphate ( iv )
    2aiii )
    Pb ( No 3) ( aq ) +H 2SO 4( aq ) - -- - -> PbSO 4( aq ) +2HNO 3
    lead ( ii) tetraoxosulphate ( vi ) is formed which is insoluble in water
    2aiv )
    Zn( s ) + CUSO 4( aq ) -- - -- > ZnSO 4( aq ) + CH ( s )
    copper metal is deposited as zinc displaced copper
    2bi )
    CaC 2( s ) + 2H 2O ( s ) - -- - -- > C 2H 2( g) + Ca ( OH ) 2 ( aq )
    2bii)
    the reaction is exothermic and hence it should be performed on a leap of sand inside the flask to prevent the flask from Cr@cking
    2biii )
    Impurities - Phospine ( PH 2) hydrogen sulphide ( H 2S ) and ammonica ( NH3)
    Reagent : Copper ( II ) tetraoxosulphate ( vi ) solution
    2biv )
    i ) because it is slightly less dense than air
    ii) because it is unstable and may explode on compression to a liquid
    2bv)
    the reaction with sliver trioxonitrate( v) dissolved in alcohol may be used to distinguish alkenes from alkyness as no reaction in alkene . While terminal alkynes form a white precipitate
    ================================
    3ai )
    i ) it is not used because it react with the gas as thus 2NH3( aq ) + H 2SO 4( aq ) -- - -- > ( NH4) 2SO 4( s )
    3aii )
    ammonia is very soluble in water at s .t . p due to readness with which forms hydrogen bond with water ( NH3. H 20)
    3aiii )
    this is to prevent trickling back of gas and mixture of gas with water formed during reaction
    3b)
    i ) by grinding to powder to increase surface area of contact
    ii) by increasing the temperature of liquid in some cases or lower the temperature as the case may be
    3ci )
    FbC 03( s ) Heat - -- - > Pbo ( s ) + Co 2( g)
    Pb ( N 03) 2( s ) Heat - - -> pb( s ) + 2N 02 ( g) + 02( g)
    3cii )
    NH4Cl turns moist red litmus blue
    NaCl Neutral to litmus paper
    ( No Reaction is observed )
    3d)
    y= FeSo 4- -> Fe ^ 2+ + So 4 ^ 2-
    Anions: So 4^ 2 - , So ^ 3 - , S ^ 2-
    3ei )
    F = Wire Gauze
    E= drying agent e ,g silical gel , calcium oxide, phosphorus ( v) oxide amnonia,fused calcium chloride
    3eii )
    it is used in keeping and drying solids in an atmosphere that is dry and free of dust
    3eiii )
    it is always greased in order to make it air tight and hence exclude atmospheric moisture
    ================================
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    GEOGRAPHY ANSWERS

    1)
    [IMG]

    =======================================

    3a )
    Sedimentary Rock
    ( i ) Are form from sediment
    ( ii) They occur in layers
    ( iii ) They contain strata
    ( iv ) They contain fossils

    ( 3bi )
    ( i ) Granite
    ( ii) Graphite
    ( iii ) Slate
    ( iv ) Marble

    ( 3bii)
    ( i ) Mans vital water supply .
    ( ii) Provision of building materials .
    ( iii ) Source of fuel .
    ( iv ) Serves as a source of economy .

    ================================

    ( 4a )
    ( i ) Atmosphere : - is the essential mixture of nitrogen and oxygen with smaller quantities of water vapour .
    ( ii) Hydrosphere : - These forms the ocean , seas,lakes and rivers which covers about three quarter of the earth surface .
    ( iii ) Bio-sphere : - It lies at the interface between the lithosphere , hydro- sphere and atmosphere .

    ( 4b)
    ( i ) Regulation of earth temperature .
    ( ii) Protection from ultra violent rays of the sun .
    ( iii ) Helps us to breath as atmosphere contains air .
    ( iv ) Separates the earth from the space .
    ================================

    ( 5ai )
    ( i ) Build the geographical database on the physical environment .
    ( ii) Support sampling strategy based on a spatial approach .
    ( iii ) Define evolution in connection with global change .
    ( iv ) Brings about remote sensing.

    ( 5aii )
    ( i ) Spatial data
    ( ii) Vector data
    - Spacial Data : - is a geographical representation of features .
    - Vector Data : - Represents a geographical feature through point line or polygon or combination of these .

    ( 5b)
    ( i ) Open Topography
    ( ii) Open Street Map
    ( iii ) Esri Open Data
    ( iv ) Natural Earth data
    ================================
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    God bless you Mandinho, Weldone​ for the good work.
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    (1a)
    Tabular form

    S/N=1| 2 |3 | 4 | 5 |
    M(g)=23.0|29.0|35.0|37.0|40.0|45.0|
    θ(°)=25.0|30.0|35.0|40.0
    tan θ=0.4663|0.5774|0.7002|0.8391|1.000

    Slope S =∆M / ∆tanθ
    =50.0 - 35.0 / 1.00 - 0.70
    =15 / 0.3
    =50.0

    (1avii)
    To comfims the mass needed to just move block b

    (1viii)
    (i)i would ensure that I avoided parallax error
    (ii) I would ensure the mass did not rest on a table

    (1bi)
    (i)Friction opposes motion
    (ii)The limiting frictional force is dependent of the nature of the surface in contact
    (iii) The maximum force of static friction is comparative to the normal force

    (1bii)
    (i) By streamlining
    (ii)By lubricating the surface
    (iii)By polishing the surface


    (1biii)
    F=MgSinθ
    where m=2kg
    θ=30°
    =2 × 10sin30°
    =20 × 0.5
    =10.0N

    =========================================



    (2a)
    IN TABULAR FORM

    S/N=| 1 I| 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
    X(cm)=20.2|15.3|11.2|8.8|6.7|
    Y(cm)=7.6|9.6|12.8|16.2|20.2|
    X+Y(cm)=27.8|24.9|24.0|25.0|26.2|
    XY(cm^3)=153.52|146.88|143.36|142.56|135.34|

    (2av)
    slope S = ∆(X+Y)cm / ∆XY(cm^3)
    =23.0 - 5.0 /140 - 80
    =0.3cm^-1

    (2avi)
    K = 1/S
    =1/0.3
    =3.333cm

    (2avii)
    (i)I would ensure avoided parallax error when reading the meter rule
    (ii)I would ensure that sharp image is formed on the screen

    (2bi)
    K confirm the sum of the distance of the object and image formed

    (2bii)
    A real image is the one through which the ray of light pass. If a screen is placed at the position of real image, the image is seen on he screen While
    A virtual image is one whereby rays of light do not pass but which nevertheless visible to the eye

    (2biii)
    1/F= 1/U + 1/U
    F=
    U=25.0cm
    V=40.0cm

    1/F =1/25 + 1/40
    1/F =40 + 5 / 200
    1/F =200 / 45
    =4.4cm
    therefore focal length of the lens =4.4cm

    =============================================


    (3a)
    IN TABULAR FORM

    S/N =1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
    R(π)=1.0|2.0|3.0|4.0|5.0|
    Y(cm)=16.5|25.5|30.0|33.0|36.0|
    P=R^-1(π^-1)=1.000|0.500|0.333|0.143|0.091|
    Q=100/1(cm^-1)=6.061|4.000|3.333|3.030|2.778|

    (3avi)
    slope S=∆P/∆Q
    =0.76 - 0.20 / 5.00 - 2.80
    =0.56 / 2.2
    =0.2255cmΩ^-1

    (3avii)

    K = 1/S
    = 1/0.255
    =3.922Ω/cm

    (3aviii)
    (i)I would ensure tight connection of wires at the terminal
    (ii)I would ensure that the key is not closed when reading are not being taken to avoid cells being run down

    (3bi)
    Intercept C = - 0.5Ω^-1
    therefore Z= 1/C
    = 1/-0.5
    =-2.0Ω
    significance:To confirmed of the resistance

    (3bii)
    (i)length of the wire
    (ii)Temeperature of wire.
    (iii)cross sectional area

    (3biii)
    Resistivity of a given wire is defined as the resistance of a unit length of the wire of a unit cross- sectional area
    P =RA/L
    A=cross sectional area
    R=Electrical resistance
    L=length of the wire
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    (1a)
    the action of transporting someone or something or the process of being transported.

    1c)
    - water -> non linear shape
    - ammonia -> trigonal pyramid shape
    - methane -> tetrahedral shape

    ===================================

    3ai)
    Allotropy is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms,in the same physical state e.g allotropy of carbon

    3aii)
    Diamond
    - is the hardest substance known in nature
    - is a transparent substance
    - poor conductivity

    Graphite
    - is a soft and slippery to touch
    - is a black and opaque
    - good conductivity of heat and electricity

    ===================================

    5a) Draw the map

    5b)Locate the area

    5c)
    i)Employment :- the mining of the mineral provides jobs for many peoples
    ii)Revenue generation:- Taxes paid by mining companies including export and import on mineral and sources of revenue to the government
    iii)Foreign exchange earning :- The export of mineral like petroleum ,coal,tin pro ides foreign exchange for country
    iv)Provision of essential goods:- essential goods or products are derived from minerals e.g aviation fuel
    v)Acquisition of skills :- The presence and extraction of these mineral enable people to acquire different skills








    COMMERCE OBJ:
    1-10:CABBADDBAC
    11-20:ABDDBABBBB
    21-30CBCDDAABBA
    31-40:CCDDBBDBBA
    41-50: DBBBAABACB


    ANSWERS 5 QUESTIONS
    NUMBER 1
    1i)
    General Agent:This agent has the authority to act on
    behalf of his principal in all matters pertaining to a
    particular business. For example A man who manages
    a book Shop and act on all matters concerning books
    on behalf of a business man who has a chain of
    business
    1ii)
    SPECIAL AGENT:This is an agent who is appointed for
    a purpose which is normally not part of his business
    activities and there fore given limited powers
    1iii)
    Factors:A factor is a mercantile agent to whom goods
    are entrusted for sale by a principal. He takes
    physical Possession of the goods though he does not
    obtain ownership of the goods
    1iv)
    Brokers:These are the commercial agent who do not
    have Possession of the goods but whose duty is to link
    his principal with potential customers
    1v)
    Delcrede Agent:This is an agent who sells goods on
    behalf of his principal with a promise and acceptance
    of responsibility for the collection of the proceeds of
    his sales
    ___________________________
    NO 3 SOLUTION
    3a)
    Advertising may be defined as form of non-personal
    commercial means of bringing the existence or
    production of new goods and services to the knowledge
    of member of the public and persuade them to buy
    and use the goods and services
    3bi)
    INFORMATIVE ADVERTISING:Is the delivery of
    advertising messages through Mass media with the
    intent of informing a target market about the
    benefits offered by a new product or innovation. This
    is one of the three common general objectives
    companies can have with advertising
    ii) PERSUASIVE ADVERTISING :This is one of the most
    common forms of advertising and the most ideal one
    indeed. It appeals to people to buy and use a
    particular commodity whether they need it or not by
    making then to understand that they cannot do
    without the commodity. This type of advertising that
    is persuasively emotional make people sometime to buy
    goods that are of no need to them
    iii) COMPETITITVE ADVERTISING :This is the form of
    advertising for goods that close substitutes. It is
    aimed at creating large market for a particular
    commodity at the expanse of close substitutes. It
    meticulously without pouring as persons on close
    substitutes information the consumers that a
    particular commodity is far better than its close
    substitutes
    iv) DIRECT ADVERTISING :This is the form of
    advertising directing to a section or class of people
    that make use of the goods and services advertised.it
    avoid waste of money, Energy and misdirection of
    advertising for instance form implements should be
    directed to the farmers in the rural areas not in
    urban area where farming is not relative by practised
    _____________________________
    6a)
    1)High Speed:
    It is the fast speed means of transport.Passengers
    and goods can be transported easily from one place to
    the other.
    2)Minimum Cost:
    Unlike railways and road transport, there is no need
    to spend money on the construction of any track or
    road, only airports have to
    be constructed.
    3)Strategic Importance:
    An airway has great strategic importance. It can be
    used for internal and external security.
    4)Easy transport of costly and light goods:It is quite
    convenient to send costly, light and perishable goods
    through air transport.
    5)Free from physical barriers:
    Air transport is free from physical barriers like river,
    mountains and valleys etc.
    6b)
    1)Encourage development
    2)Economic growth
    3)promotion of trading activities
    4)efficient distribution of goods
    5)Facilitate movement
    _____________________________
    9a)
    i)Land
    ii)Capital
    iii) labour
    9bi)
    i)LAND:Land as a factor of production is a free gift
    of nature and is fixed. it is the oldest factors of
    production in the sense that it has been on earth
    before man started working on it, land in Commerce
    does not include only the hard surface of the earth
    but all other free gifts of nature that man never
    increase the surface of land and water
    Example :they include the soil, farmland, mineral
    deposits, forests, sunshine, fishing grounds;bodies of
    water such as lakes, Sean, rivers etc
    9bii)
    CAPITAL:This may be defined as wealth reserved or
    set aside for the production of more wealth. They also
    refers to all man-made productive assists;that is all
    man-made wealth or goods used to produce other
    goods and services
    Examples of capital are machines, tools factory
    buildings, raw materials, fuel, money etc
    9biii)
    Labour:Labour refers to all human effort which may
    be physical or mental, skilled or unskilled, scientific or
    artistic, used in the productive process, usually for a
    reward
    For example :the effort of the labourer in the field
    (physical effort)
    The effort of the accountant in the bank(mental
    effort)
    Its reward is a wage or salary
    _________________________
    10a)
    i)The problem of double Coincidence of wants
    ii)Problem of rate of exchange
    iii)Problem of indivisibility of some goods to be
    exchanged
    iv)Problem of storage or saving
    v) Impossibility of large - scale production
    10b)
    i)The problem of double coincidence of want:Trade by
    barter involves double coincidence of wants. A
    producer has to find someone who has what he has or
    produce. For example it is not enough for a yam
    former to find a carpenter who procedure the chairs
    which he requires
    ii) Problem of rate of change:There was no unit of
    exchange or common standard of value and so there
    was the problem of an adequate valuation of goods to
    be exchanged. For example, if the yam farmer was
    lucky enough to find a carpenter who was ready to
    exchange his goods with his, another problem arose
    iii)Problem of indivisibility of some goods to be
    exchanged :A problem arose when the owner of a large
    indivisible commodity wanted to exchange his his goods
    for some small items. For example, if the owner of a
    cow want some pepper, he may find it very difficult
    to effect an exchange
    Iv) Problem of storage or saving: During the barter
    system, saving was difficult especially when the goods
    were perishable. It was difficult to store perishable
    goods as wealth since this would lead to loss
    V) Impossibility of large - scale production :Large scale
    production is only possible where there is a large and
    guaranteed demand for products and with the
    existence of division of labour. During the barter
    system, the demand for goods was never certain, and
    so division of labour and large - scale production were
    rare.
    __________________________
    COMPLETED



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    GEOGRAPHY ANSWER'S



    1a)
    transportation is the movement of people, goods, commodities from one place to another either by land, water, railway or air.
    1b)
    i)movement of goods and services: transportation ensures the movement of goods and services from one point to their destination.
    ii)movement of people: transportation equally ensures the movement of people from one part of a country to another.
    iii)employment: all means of transportation employs lots of people, thereby enabling them to earn a living.
    iv)generation of revenue: licenses, taxes for vehicles are source of revenue for through transportation.
    v)access to natural resources: through transportation, different natural resources are discovered and exploited.
    1c)
    PROBLEM:
    i)low level of technology
    ii)there is limited capital to construct airport
    iii)there is problem of inadequate spare parts
    iv)poor management
    =====================
    3a)
    manufacturing industry is an industry that turns raw amterials into new product by mechanical or chemical processes at home or in the factories.
    3b)
    i)proximity to source of material: industry should be located near raw material e.g perishable goods near their material
    ii)nearness to source of power: they should be ready and dependable source of power e.g coal, thermal, petrol
    iii)nearness to market: they should be ready market for the product of any product to be sited in a place e.g fragile goods like glass
    iv)availability of labour: they should be high skilled labour and enough unskilled labour e.g labour force
    v)availabilty of capital: they should be enough capital to purchase industrial inputs before setting up industries e.g loans, fixed capital
    3c)
    i)light industries have inadequate management skills while heavy industries have relative management skills
    ii)light industries have inadequate capital, heavy industries have adequate capital
    iii)light industries have low technology, heavy industries have better technology
    =====================
    4a)
    PHYSICAL FACTORS
    i)soil fertile: soil tends to attract populations like china, java
    ii)climate: areas with favourable climate like USA, china do attract population
    iii)presence of mineral resources: resources like coal, iron, petroleum do attract population
    HUMAN FACTORS
    i)agriculture: areas where agriculture is widely practised like india, china java do attract population
    ii)industries: concentration of industries in an area like USA, Germany tends to attract people for job opportunity
    iii)immigration: the movement of people from other part of the world to an area e.g USA
    4b)
    PROBLEMS
    i)rapid population growth always cause food shortage
    ii)there will be high mobility
    iii)inadequate social amenities
    iv)there will be high rate of infant mortality
    4c)
    SUGGESTIONS
    i)family planning or birth control measure can solve the problem of rapid population growth
    ii)discouraging early marriage is also a solution
    iii)encouragement of monogamy - one wife, one man can solve the problem of rapid population growth
    =====================
    5a)
    Draw the map
    5b)
    petroleum - port harcourt
    tine ore - onitsha
    coal - okaba
    lime stone - nkalagu
    5c)
    I)Employment: the mining of the mineral provides jobs for many peoples
    ii)Revenue generation: Taxes paid by mining companies including export and import on mineral and sources of revenue to the government
    iii)Foreign exchange earning: The export of mineral like petroleum, coal, tin pro ides foreign exchange for country
    iv)Provision of essential goods: essential goods or products are derived from minerals e.g aviation fuel
    v)Acquisition of skills: The presence and extraction of these mineral enable people to acquire different skills
    =====================
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    Business Structure Answer's (AD)


    1
    Functional structure
    A functional organizational structure is a structure that consists of activities such as coordination, supervision and task allocation. The organizational structure determines how the organization performs or operates. The term organizational structure refers to how the people in an organization are grouped and to whom they report. One traditional way of organizing people is by function. Some common functions within an organization include production, marketing, human resources, and accounting.
    This organizing of specialization leads to operational efficiency where employees become specialists within their own realm of expertise. The most typical problem with a functional organizational structure is however that communication within the company can be rather rigid, making the organization slow and inflexible. Therefore, lateral communication between functions become very important, so that information is disseminated, not only vertically, but also horizontally within the organization. Communication in organizations with functional organizational structures can be rigid because of the standardized ways of operation and the high degree of formalization.
    As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost. Coordination and specialization of tasks are centralized in a functional structure, which makes producing a limited amount of products or services efficient and predictable. Moreover, efficiency can further be realized as functional organizations integrate their activities vertically so that products are sold and distributed quickly and at low cost. For instance, a small business could make components used in production of its products instead of buying them.
    Even though functional units often perform with a high level of efficiency, their level of cooperation with each other is sometimes compromised. Such groups may have difficulty working well with each other as they may be territorial and unwilling to cooperate. The occurrence of infighting among units may cause delays, reduced commitment due to competing interests, and wasted time, making projects fall behind schedule. This ultimately can bring down production levels overall, and the company-wide employee commitment toward meeting organizational goals.


    =================================


    2
    Physiological needs
    Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are thought to be the most important; they should be met first.
    Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. While maintaining an adequate birth rate shapes the intensity of the human sexual instinct, sexual competition may also shape said instinct.


    Safety needs
    Once a person's physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety due to war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, etc. people may (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of economic safety due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to be found in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe.
    Safety and Security needs include:
    Personal security
    Financial security
    Health and well-being
    Safety needs against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts


    ===================================

    3
    Limited access to long term funds High cost of funds as a result of high interest ratio and bank charges
    .( High mortality rate especially within their first two years.
    ( Over dependence on imported raw materials and spare parts.
    ( Poor inter and intra sectional linkage hence, they hardly enjoy economics of scale
    ( benefit. Poor management skills due to their inability to pay for skilled labour.



    4
    money damages and restitution
    or
    rescission and reformation

    ===================================

    5
    Managerial Focus
    MBO managers focus on the result, not the activity. They delegate tasks by "negotiating a contract of goals" with their subordinates without dictating a detailed roadmap for implementation. Management by Objectives (MBO) is about setting yourself objectives and then breaking these down into more specific goals or key results.
    Main Principle
    The principle behind Management by Objectives (MBO) is to make sure that everybody within the organization has a clear understanding of the aims, or objectives, of that organization, as well as awareness of their own roles and responsibilities in achieving those aims. The complete MBO system is to get managers and empowered employees acting to implement and achieve their plans, which automatically achieve those of the organization.

    ==================================

    6
    Overhead costs, often referred to as overhead or operating expenses, refer to those expenses associated with running a business that cant be linked to creating or producing a product or service. They are the expenses the business incurs to stay in business, regardless of its success level.
    Overhead costs are all of the costs on the companys income statement except for those that are directly related to manufacturing or selling a product, or providing a service. A potters clay and potting wheel are not overhead costs because they are directly related to the products made. The rent for the facility where the potter creates is an overhead cost because the potter pays rent whether shes creating products or not.

    =================================
    7
    So, simple interest is the sum paid for using the borowed money, for a fixed period. On the other hand, whenever the interest becomes due for payment, it is added to the principal, on which interest for the succeeding period is reckoned, this is known as compound interest. So, here in this article, you will find the basic differences between Simple Interest and Compound Interest, which we have compiled after an in-depth research on the two terms. When a person borrows money from the money lender or any bank/financial institution, some extra amount is charged by the lending entity for the use of money, called as interest. The interest rate is mutually decided by both the parties. Interest can be charged in two ways, i.e. simple interest and compound interest. The former is the type of interest where the interest is charged only on loaned amount but in the case of the latter interest is calculated on the amount lent plus accumulated interest. OR
    Simple Interest vs Compound Interest
    Interest rate is generally defined as the cost for borrowing money. It is stated in percentage and set against the original amount of the borrowed money or the principal. There are two types of interests. One is simple interest while the other is compound interest. If you are planning to borrow money or to invest in the money market, you should get a clear idea about the difference between simple and compound interest.
    First of all, simple interest is computed based on the principal only or original amount of the borrowed money. Compound interest on the other hand is computed periodically. The computations include the earned interest from the principal plus the compounded interest earned over a period of time.
    Simple interest is applied on loans for single periods such as 30 days or 60 days. So if you get a short term loan for 60 days, the interest will be computed based on the original principal only. For long term loans, lenders usually apply compound interest. The periods are pre-defined by the lender. These could be quarterly, semi-annually, or annually. With compound interest, the interest earned during the previous period will be added to the principal. This will become the new principal and it will earn an interest according to the terms agreed.
    You have to note that the growth of interest with simple interest calculation is constant. That is why it is the preferred system for short-term loans. With compound interest, the growth is exponential because the principal is getting bigger each period. Compounding interest is the fastest way to accumulate wealth so this is the preferred system of lenders and investors.
    Simple interest and compound interest are radically different from each other. The former is usually applied to short-term loans while the latter is used for long term loans and investments.

    ===============================


    8.
    The stock ledger is where the corporation keeps an accurate record of all stock transactions and is usually part of a corporate records book or kit.


    ===============================

    9
    a book which records quantities and values of stock
    it shows record of each shareholder's ownership in a corporation.


    ===============================

    10
    is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.


    ===============================

    11
    Reinforcement Theory of Motivation
    Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individuals behaviour is a function of its consequences. It is based on law of effect, i.e, individuals behaviour with positive consequences tends to be repeated, but individuals behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.
    Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, i.e., the inner feelings and drives of individuals are ignored by Skinner. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. Thus, according to Skinner, the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee. This theory is a strong tool for analyzing controlling mechanism for individuals behaviour. However, it does not focus on the causes of individuals behaviour.
    The managers use the following methods for controlling the behaviour of the employees:

    Positive Reinforcement- This implies giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behaviour. For example - Immediately praising an employee for coming early for job. This will increase probability of outstanding behaviour occurring again. Reward is a positive reinforce, but not necessarily. If and only if the employees behaviour improves, reward can said to be a positive reinforcer. Positive reinforcement stimulates occurrence of a behaviour. It must be noted that more spontaneous is the giving of reward, the greater reinforcement value it has.


    Negative Reinforcement- This implies rewarding an employee by removing negative / undesirable consequences. Both positive and negative reinforcement can be used for increasing desirable / required behaviour.


    Punishment- It implies removing positive consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating undesirable behaviour in future. In other words, punishment means applying undesirable consequence for showing undesirable behaviour. For instance - Suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules. Punishment can be equalized by positive reinforcement from alternative source.


    Extinction- It implies absence of reinforcements. In other words, extinction implies lowering the probability of undesired behaviour by removing reward for that kind of behaviour. For instance - if an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behaviour is generating no fruitful consequence. Extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behaviour.

    Implications of Reinforcement Theory
    Reinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behaviour. Managers who are making attempt to motivate the employees must ensure that they do not reward all employees simultaneously. They must tell the employees what they are not doing correct. They must tell the employees how they can achieve positive reinforcement.

    11B
    (1) Improves Performance Level:
    The ability to do work and willingness to do work both affect the efficiency of a person. The ability to do work is obtained with the help of education and training and willingness to do work is obtained with the help of motivation.
    Willingness is more important in comparison to ability. For example, a person is highly educated and he is recruited on this very basis. But it is not essential that he will do outstanding work.
    (2) Helps to Change Negative or Indifferent Attitudes of Employees:
    Some employees of an organisation have a negative attitude. They always think that doing more work will not bring any credit. A manager uses various techniques to change this attitude.
    For example, if the financial situation of such an employee is weak, he gives him a raise in his remuneration and if his financial condition is satisfactory he motivates him by praising his work.
    (3) Reduction in Employee Turnover:
    The reputation of an organisation is affected by the employee turnover. This creates a lot of problems for the managers. A lot of time and money go waste in repeatedly recruiting employees and giving them education and training.
    Only motivation can save an organisation from such wastage. Motivated people work for a longer time in the organisation and there is a decline in the rate of turnover.
    (4) Helps to Reduce Absenteeism in the Organisation:
    In some of the organisations, the rate of absenteeism is high. There are many causes for this-poor work conditions, poor relations with colleagues and superiors, no recognition in the organisation, insufficient reward, etc. A manager removes all such deficiencies and motivates the employees. Motivated employees do not remain absent from work as the workplace becomes a source of joy for them.
    (5) Reduction in Resistance to Change:
    New changes continue taking place in the organisation. Normally workers are not prepared to accept any changes in their normal routine. Whereas it becomes essential to bring in some changes because of the demands of time.
    Employees can be made to accept such changes easily with the help of motivation. Motivated people accept these changes enthusiastically and improve their work performance.

    ==============================

    13a) The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is the number of units that a company should add to inventory with each order to minimize the total costs of inventorysuch as holding costs, order costs, and shortage costs. The EOQ is used as part of a continuous review inventory system in which the level of inventory is monitored at all times and a fixed quantity is ordered each time the inventory level reaches a specific reorder point. The EOQ provides a model for calculating the appropriate reorder point and the optimal reorder quantity to ensure the instantaneous replenishment of inventory with no shortages. It can be a valuable tool for small business owners who need to make decisions about how much inventory to keep on hand, how many items to order each time, and how often to reorder to incur the lowest possible costs.
    The EOQ model assumes that demand is constant, and that inventory is depleted at a fixed rate until it reaches zero. At that point, a specific number of items arrive to return the inventory to its beginning level. Since the model assumes instantaneous replenishment, there are no inventory shortages or associated costs. Therefore, the cost of inventory under the EOQ model involves a tradeoff between inventory holding costs (the cost of storage, as well as the cost of tying up capital in inventory rather than investing it or using it for other purposes) and order costs (any fees associated with placing orders, such as delivery charges). Ordering a large amount at one time will increase a small business's holding costs, while making more frequent orders of fewer items will reduce holding costs but increase order costs. The EOQ model finds the quantity that minimizes the sum of these costs.

    13b) Reorder Level
    Reorder level (or reorder point) is the inventory level at which a company would place a new order or start a new manufacturing run.
    Reorder Level = Lead Time in Days × Daily Average Usage

    Lead time is the time it takes the supplier or the manufacturing process to provide the ordered units.
    Daily average usage is the number of units used each day.
    If a business is holding a safety stock to act as buffer if daily usage accelerates the reorder level would increase by the level of safety stock.
    Reorder Level = Lead Time in Days × Daily Average Usage + Safety Stock

    Example : ABC Ltd. is a retailer of footwear. It sells 500 units of one of a famous brand daily. Its supplier takes a week to deliver the order.
    The inventory manager should place an order before the inventories drop below 3,500 units (500 units of daily usage multiplied with 7 days of lead time) in order to avoid a stock-out.

    13c) Buffer stock, also called buffer inventory, excess inventory or safety stock, is a cushion of supply in excess of forecast demand. Buffer stock may be found at all stages of the supply chain, and is intended to reduce the incidence or severity of stock-out situations and thus provide better customer service. Buffer stock is used in production or other inventory situations to ensure that exceptional or out of the ordinary events or demands can be met with some degree of certainty.
    13d) The stock ledger is where the corporation keeps an accurate record of all stock transactions and is usually part of a corporate records book or kit. The stock ledger is also referred to as the "stock transfer ledger," or a "corporate stock ledger." Now, with the advent of technology, services, such as SmallBiZ Secretary provide online management of the stock ledger.

    Stock ledgers may very based on provider, but normally included are the following:


    Stock certificate number;


    Shareholder name;


    Mailing address of shareholder;


    Number of shares issued;


    Number of total outstanding shares;


    Class of shares;


    Date of purchase; and


    Consideration (monetary value of amount paid).



    13e) A material requisition form lists the items to be picked from inventory and used in the production process or in the provision of a service to a customer, usually for a specific job. The form usually has three purposes:
    To pick items from stock
    To relieve the inventory records in the amount of the items picked
    To charge the targeted job for the cost of the items requisitioned
    The form can also be used as the basis for the reordering of any inventory items that are not currently in stock.
    The information most commonly found on a material requisition form includes:
    Header section: Job number to be charged
    Header section: Date of requisition
    Header section: Date by which inventory is required
    Main body: Item number or description to be pulled from stock
    Main body: Unit quantity to be pulled from stock
    Footer section: Authorization signature line
    If the materials are to be delivered to a specific location, there may also be space in the header in which to identify the delivery location.

    ===================================

    14a
    The petty cash book is a formal summarization of petty cash expenditures, sorted by date. In most cases, the petty cash book is an actual ledger book, rather than a computer record. Thus, the book is part of a manual record-keeping system.
    There are two primary types of entries in the petty cash book, which are a debit to record cash received by the petty cash clerk (usually in a single block of cash at infrequent intervals), and a large number of credits to reflect cash withdrawals from the petty cash fund. These credits can be for such transactions as payments for meals, flowers, office supplies, stamps, and so forth.
    A somewhat more useful format is to record all debits and credits in a single column, with a running cash balance in the column furthest to the right, as shown in the following example. This format is an excellent way to monitor the current amount of petty cash remaining on hand.

    14b) STATIONARIES
    TRAVELING EXPENSES
    MISCELLANEOUS

    14C) Following are the main points of difference between trading account and profit and loss account:

    Trading Account

    Profit and Loss Account

    1
    It is the first stage of final accounts.
    1
    It is the second stage of the final accounts.

    2
    It shows the gross result (gross profit or gross loss) of the business.
    2
    It shows the net results (net profit or net loss) of the business.

    3
    All direct expenses (expenses connected with purchase or production of goods) are considered in it.
    3
    All expenses connected with sales and administration (indirect expenses) of business are considered.

    4
    It does not start with the balance of any account.
    4
    It always starts with the balance of a trading account (gross profit or gross loss).

    5
    Its balance (G.P or G.L) is transferred to profit and loss account.
    5
    Its balance (N.P or N.L) is transferred to capital account in balance sheet.

    =================================

    16a)
    Definition of 'Autocratic Leadership'

    Definition: Autocratic leadership is a management style wherein one person controls all the decisions and takes very little inputs from other group members. Autocratic leaders make choices or decisions based on their own beliefs and do not involve others for their suggestion or advice. Description: Autocratic leadership is a form of management style in which one leader or member of the organisation takes decisions on behalf of the company. This type of leadership style is seen mostly in businesses which are relatively small with fewer employees. This type of leadership style is only effective in organisations where the nature of work requires quick decision-making. The sole responsibility of the decision and the outcome is with the leader. It is considered to be a flexible leadership style but some would argue that it is outdated now. However, there are certain characteristics of autocratic leadership such as - no inputs from other group members are taken, group leader(s) dictate all the tasks or distribute responsibilities among other employees, and no reward or recognition is given to employees to boost morale. Some experts argue that this type of leadership style can be damaging rather than rewarding in the long run as it resembles that of a dictator. It leads to low employee morale, which in turn may lead to attrition in many cases. However, there are some advantages of autocratic leadership as well. It leads to quick decision-making, control over the processes and the operations of a company, etc. Autocratic leadership will be helpful in situations where a business faces constant change or a crisis. It will be able to react to the situation promptly compared to other leadership styles, because of streamlined organizational structure and quick decision-making ability.

    16b) A democratic leader understands that there is no organization without its people. He looks at his and others' positions in terms of responsibilities rather than status, and often consults in decision-making. The democratic style encompasses the notion that everyone, by virtue of their human status, should play a part in the group's decisions. Democratic leadership invites the participation of staff members and others, not only in decision-making, but also in shaping the organization's vision.
    While democratic leader solicits, values, and takes into account others' opinions, however, the ultimate responsibility for decision-making still lies reserved with the leader. Final decisions about what to do with the ideas from team members still remain in the hands of the leader. Such a leader believes that although the organization success depends on collaboration and cooperation from all team members, accountability for the consequences of the decisions made still lies on the leader alone.

    Democratic leadership is a style of leadership found in human resources theory and participative management.
    Characteristics of Democratic Leadership:
    This style of leadership encompasses discussion, debate and sharing of ideas and encouragement of people to feel good about their involvement. Democratic leadership can lead to better ideas and more creative solutions to problems because group members are encouraged to share their thoughts and ideas.
    It allows everyone to express opinions about how things should be done, and where the organization should go. By bringing in everyone's ideas, it enriches the organization's possibilities
    Democratic style of leadership still requires guidance and control by a specific leader.
    The democratic style demands the leader to make decisions on who should be called upon within the group and who is given the right to participate in, make and vote on decisions.
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    NABTEB GCE BIOLOGY


    1ai)
    i. As a colony eg volvox
    ii. As a filament eg
    spirogyra
    iii. As a part of a living
    organism eg amoeba

    1aii)
    i. It leads to cellular differentiation
    ii. It leads to internal
    structural specialisation
    iii. It increases adaptation
    of environment
    iv. Complexity leads to
    efficiency
    v. Complexity leads to
    increase in size
    vi. Mutual interdependence between component cell


    DISADVANTAGES

    i. Inability of individual
    cells to exist on their own
    ii. Difficulties in aquisition
    of oxygen and food
    materials
    iii. It leads to slower rate of diffusion
    iv. Slower rate of expulsion
    of waste products
    v. Difficulties in
    reproduction
    vi. Decreases in ability to
    regenerate

    1bi)
    -- Virus is on the borderline
    between living things and
    non-living things
    --It possesses
    characteristics which can
    be transmitted from one
    generation to the other

    1bii)
    -- When a virus is extracted
    from a living cell and
    placed in a non living
    medium, it assumes a
    crystalline and thus
    become non living
    =================
    =

    2ai
    )
    -- Carbon iv oxide
    -- Water and mineral salt
    -- Sunlight
    -- Optimum temperature
    -- Chlorophy ii

    2aii
    )
    Experiment to show that
    light is necessary for
    photosynthesis are as
    follows:

    Materials required:
    A potted
    plant, strip of black
    paper, clips, cupboard.

    Method:
    The potted plants
    is first detached by putting
    it in a dark cupboard for
    1-2 days this is to remove
    all trace of starch formed
    in the leave after this, the
    middle of one of the
    leaves is covered by a strip
    of black with the ends of
    clips, the whole plant is
    then placed in
    sunlight. After about 3-5
    hours, the paper is
    removed the leaf is then
    tasted for starch.

    OBSERVATION
    Only the
    expose part i.e use top
    and rotten of the leaf
    turned blue back with the
    iodine solution which shows the presence of
    starch while the area that
    was covered with black
    paper will remain
    colourless, indicating that
    starch is absent.

    CONCLUSION
    The
    experiment shows that
    light is necessary for
    photosynthesis.

    2b
    )
    Micro nutrients are:
    -- Zinc
    -- Boron
    -- Copper
    -- Molybdenum

    Macro nutrients are:
    -- Nnitrogen
    -- Potassium
    -- Phosphorus
    -- Magnesium
    =================

    3ai)
    Balance diet is a food
    containing the correct
    proportion of all the six
    classes of nutrients, they are:
    Carbohydrate
    Protein
    Vitamin
    Fat &
    Oil
    Mineral and
    Water

    3aii)
    i. It encourages the growth
    and normal development
    of the body
    ii. It also provide energy
    required for normal
    activities
    iii. Balance diet prevent
    malnutrition deficiency or diseases

    3b)
    Method 1: Rub the test substances on
    a paper or melt it on
    paper
    .
    Result: The paper becomes
    translucent indicate
    presence of fat
    .

    Method 2:
    To the test substances, add
    a few drops of osmic acid.
    Result: Is that there is
    brownish black coloration
    indicate the presence of
    fat.

    Method 3: To about 1cm^3 of milk in
    a test tube, add a few
    drops of sudan iv, the
    Result is that the red
    colour is obtained
    showing the presence of
    fat

    3c
    )
    i. Insects
    ii. Birds
    iii. Rodents
    iv. Monkeys
    =================

    5a)
    i. In complex multicellular
    organisms many cells are
    situated far away from
    others hence, substances
    have to be moved over
    greater distances.
    ii. Use surface area to
    volume ratio in complex
    multicellular organism is
    too small hence the need
    for an efficient transport
    system
    .
    iii. A conducting or linking
    system become necessary
    to connect isolated groups
    of cell
    iv. Fiffusion alone cannot
    be used for transportation
    of materials to isolated
    cells
    v.materials being
    transported are large in
    quantities for simple
    process of diffusion, osmosis, or active
    transport to
    accomplish.hence, the need
    for an efficient transport
    system in higher
    organisms.

    6b)
    Rainguage - Measures the amount of rainfall

    Anemometer - Measures the speed of wind

    Light meter - Measures intensity of light
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    Bio OBJ:
    1bdcaabccbc
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    31bcdcacbadb
    41bbdadbbccd
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    NABTEB CHEMISTRY OBJ AND THEORY

    1-10 BDCACCCBDD
    11-20 BCCCBADAAC
    21-30 CCDBADACBC
    31-40 CDDCAACCBD
    41-50 DBCADBACBA



    (1ai)

    In a degenerated orbital there are no two electrons that can have the same four
    Quantum numbers.

    (1aii)

    An ionic bond involves the loose and gain of electrons.



    A covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons by two atoms where both atoms contribute.

    A dativ bond involves sharing of electrons but only one atom contribute the electrons to be shared

    (1bi)

    Periodic law states that atoms are arranged in order Of increase in their atomic number

    (1bii)

    - Does not form common compounds - k10

    - liberates hydrogen from cold water - J3

    - Are halogens - N17

    - Are in the same group - J31L13

    - Forms ions by loss of three electrons - L13

    (1c)

    - Water

    - Ammonia - Triangular pyramid

    - Methane - Tetrahedral

    - sulphur (iv) oxide - linear


    =========================

    (3ai)

    Allotropes are atoms of the same element in the same physical state but in different forms.

    (3aii)

    TABULAR FORM

    Diamond | Graphite
    Transparent. | Blank
    Very strong solid | Soft solid
    Octahedral shape | Hexagonal shape


    (3aii)

    Diamond -> For cutting glass
    For drilling limestones

    Graphite -> For making pencils
    For lubricating metals


    (3bi)

    An, electrolytic cell is made up of an electrolyte, electrodes and sources of electricity where the electrolyte decomposes.


    (3bii)

    2 Faraday deposits 63.5g of copper
    i.e 2x96500c deposits 63.5g of copper

    298,500c deposits Xg of copper

    X = 298,500x63.5 / 2x96500
    =98.211g

    (3ci)

    A reducing agent is the substance that is oxides in a redox reaction

    (3cii)

    They will turn purple permanent to pink.

    (3ciii)

    - Pipeline product manufacturing company in portharcourt

    - Dangote cement in lokoja


    =========================


    (4ai)

    A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that the solvent can take at a particular temperature.

    (4aii)

    A dilute solution contains more solution that solute contain at a temperature.

    (4aiii)


    A super saturated solution contains more than enough solute than the solvent can contain at the temperature.

    (4b)

    Iodine -
    Chlorine - For killing micro organisms
    Alum - For coagulation

    (4ci)

    It reacts with water to form acid

    It changes blue litmus paper to red
    It reacts with ammonia gas to form salt.

    (4cii)

    As an oxidising agent because it reduced to nitrogen gas.

    As an acidic oxide because the product formed are salt and water only.

    (4di)

    Disco sulphate(iii) acid - Hso2

    (4dii) C2HSOH ------->CH3COOH+H20

    (4diii)

    C2HSOH -------> C2H4+H20

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