# Waec Gce WAEC GCE LIVE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 2017

Discussion in 'Waec, Weac, Neco, Waec GCE And Neco GCE' started by MANDINHO, Jun 29, 2017.

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1ai)
tabulate
volume of acid used 1cm^3|23.50|22.50|22.60|

1aii)
avaerage volume of acide used= 22.50+22.60/2 =22.55cm^3

1bi)
5Fe^2+ +Mn0^-4 + 8H^+ ---->5Fe^2+ +Mn^2+ + 4H20
MA=?
MB=0.0200moldm^-3
VB=22.55cm^3
VA=25cn^3
NA=5
NB=1
MAVA/MBVB=NA/NB
MA*25/0.0200*22.55=5/1
MA=0.0200*22.55*5/25
=0.0900moldm^-3

1bii)
Molar mass of FeSO4' 7H2O
56+32+(4*16)+7(18)
56+32+64+126
=278gmol^-1
Con of FeSO4 7H2O in gdm^-3=0.0900*278=25.02gdm^-3

1biii)
Mass of =33.60-25.02
FeSO4 7H2O=8.58gdm^-3
%age of FeSO4 7H20=8.58/33.60*100=25.54%

1ci)
The reason is KMno4 is a very strong oxidizing agent which can oxidise hydrochloric acid

1cii)
Because of the dark purple color of KMnO4 the bottom of the minisucs in the burette is not clearly seen so the upper of the miniscus is read

1ciii)
Because the product Mn^2+ formed is colourless

====================================

(2a)
TEST|OBSERVATION|INFERENCE

(2ai)
TEST: A+distilled water and stirred
OBSERVATION: A disolved in water
INFERENCE: A is soluble in salt

(2aii)
TEST: A(aq)+litmus paper
OBSERVATION: Turns blue litmus paper red
INFERENCE: A is an acidiic salt

(2aiii)
TEST: A(aq)+NaOH(aq)- in drops, then in excess
OBSERVATION: -White gelatinous ppt formed.
-Precipitate soluble/dissolved
INFERENCE: Pb^2+ or Zn^2+ or Al^3+ present
Pb^2+ or Zn^2+ or Al^3+ present

(2aiv)
TEST:A(aq)+NH3(aq)- in dropss,
-then in excess
OBSERVATION: -White gelatinous precipitate
-Precipitate insoluble
INFERENCE: -Pb^2+ or Zn^2+ or Al^3+
-Al^3+ present

(2av)
TEST: A(aq)+FeSO4(aq)+conc H2SO4
OBSERVATION: Brown ring forms between the two solutions
INFERENCE: NO3- confirmed

(2bi)
A is aluminium trioxonitrate(v)

(2bii)
Al(NO3)3

(2c)
TEST|OBSERVATION|INFERENCE

(2ci)
TEST: K+NaHCO3(aq)
OBSERVATION: No visible reaction is observed
INFERENCE: NaHCO3(aq) does not show result for alkanols(K)

(2cii)
TEST: K+benedict solution+heat
OBSERVATION: There is no change in the colour of the benedicts solution
INFERENCE: Benedicts solution is not an indicator for alkanols(K)

(2ciii)
TEST: K+KMnO4(aq)
OBSERVATION: KMnO4(aq) solution changes from purple to colourless
INFERENCE: Alkanol is being oxidized by KMnO4

(2civ)
TEST: K+CH3COOH+conc H2SO4
OBSERVATION: pleasant fruity smell is observed
INFERENCE: Esterification reaction has occured
=========================================

(3a)
(i) Putsome distilled water in a beaker
(ii) Measure 100cm^3 of 2.00mol/dm^3 of the stock solution by means of a burette and pour all the solution into the beaker containing the distilled water
(iii) Stir the solution
(iv) Transfer the solution into a 250cm^3 volumetric flask by means of a funnel
(v) Ensure that all the solution in the volumetric flask has been transferred by thoroughly rinsing the inside of the beaker with distilled water
(vi) Dilute the solution in the volumetric flask with distilled water until it reaches the 250cm^3 mark
(vii) Shake the solution carefully

(3b)
(i) CH3COONa: It forms basic solution
(ii) Al2(SO4)3: Acidic solution
(iii) KNO3: Neutral solution

(3c)
Acidified potasium tetraoxomanganate(vii) KMnO4 was placed in the burette
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Economics 1 (Objective) – 11.30 am. – 12.30 pm

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ECONOMICS SOLUTION

1ai)
depenent age/population in X/total population in X * 100%
=(60+20)/(60+40+20)*100%
=80/120*100%
=66^2/3%

1aii)
depenent age/population in Y/total population in Y * 100%
=(20+15)/(20+55+15)*100%
=35/90*100%
=38.89%

1bi)
X=66^2/3 : 33^1/3
=2: 1

1biii)
=38.89 : 61.11
=7 : 11

1c)
country X
national income/population size
=\$480million/120million
=\$4.00
country Y
National income/population size
=\$540million/90million
=\$6.00

1d)
i)Increase in production of goods and services: Since the labour force in country Y is more than that of country X, countyr Y will have production than country X.
ii)Reduction in pressure over available resources: The available resources in the country Y will not be pressurized like that of country X.
================================
3a)
labour force is the process where by people who are ableto work in a country or area, or all the people who work for a particular company.

3b)
i)Structural unemployment refers to a mismatch between the jobs available and the skill levels of the unemployed.
ii)Frictional unemploymentis when workers leave their jobs to find better ones. It's usually a voluntary exit but can also result from a layoff or termination with cause.

3c)
i)the population of the country
ii)the population are fully employed
iii)the available of good medical facilities
iv)the total number of productive workers
=================================

7ai)
Terms of trade refers to the relative price of imports in terms of exports and is as the ratio of export prices to import prices.

7aii)
The balance of trade is the difference between a country's imports and its exports for a given time period.

7b)
i)Expenditure reducing policies
ii)Expenditure switching policies
iii)Improving the supply-side
iv)Improving macroeconomic stability

================================

5a)
The money market is where financial instruments with high liquidity and very short maturities are traded. It is used by participants as a means for borrowing and lending in the short term, with maturities that usually range from overnight to just under a year.

5bi)
Treasury bill is a short-dated government security, yielding no interest but issued at a discount on its redemption price.

5bii)
Treasury certificate is another money instrument which and in the mobilization of savings, which is made available to the needy sectors of the economy.

5c)
i)To maintain monetary balance between demand and supply of short term monetary transactions.
ii)Money market plays a very important role of making funds available to many units or entities engaged in diversified field of activities be it agriculture, industry, trade, commerce or any other business.
iii)By providing funds to developing sectors it helps in growth of economy also.

No 1

No 2

No 6

No 7
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1ai)
(Dependent population X/Total population X)*100%
=[(60+20)/(60+40+20)]*100%
=[80/120]*100%
=66.67%
1aii)
(Dependent population in Y/Total population in Y )*100%
=[(20+15)/(20+55+15)]*100%
=35/90*100%
=38.89%
1bi)
Dependency ratio in X=66.67 : 33.33
=2:1
1bii)
Depency ratio in Y=38.89 : 61.11
=7:11
1c)
Per capital income of country X=National income of X/population size
=480million/120million
=\$4.00
Per capital income of coountry Y=National income of Y/Population size
=540million/90million
=\$600
1d)
- Country Y is more stable and wealthier
-Country Y is more developed

4a)
Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output). It is the act of creating output, a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals
4b)
Primary industries are industries, such as mining, agriculture, or forestry, that is concerned with obtaining or providing natural raw materials for conversion into commodities and products for the consumer WHILE Secondary industries are industries that converts the raw materials provided by primary industry into commodities and products for the consumer; manufacturing industry
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ECONOMIC OBJ SOLVING.....

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ECONOMICS OBJ
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=============================

2)
issues of child-neglect, child abuse, defilement of girls, gender, child-trafficking, child-labour, absent fathers, reproductive health risks, violence and failed governance through the grim experiences of street children. In Accra, MUTE, a non-governmental organisation seeks to unravel the mysterious death of Baby T, a child prostitute whose battered body was found in a slum behind a rasta hair salon kiosk. MUTE’s encounter with Fofo, Baby T’s sister opens an investigative trail into the lives of neglected children. Where do street children come from? Why are they on the street? Who are their parents? These are some of the questions answered unequivocally inFaceless.
Firmly embedded inFacelessis the loud and clear message that parents should take responsibility for their children. More pronounced is the message that no child should be brought into the world without visible means of providing for him physically, financially, psychologically and emotionally.
================================

5)
Mary is a very rich white girl who has far leftist leanings. She is a Communist sympathizer recently understood to be frolicking with Jan, a known Communist party organizer. Consequently, she is trying to abide, for a time, by her parents’ wishes and go to Detroit. She is to leave the morning after Bigger is hired as the family chauffeur. Under the ruse of a University meeting, she has Bigger take her to meet Jan. When they return to the house, she is too drunk to make it to her room unassisted and thus, Bigger helps her. Mrs. Dalton comes upon them in the room and Bigger smothers her for fear that Mrs. Dalton will discover him. Although she dies earlier in the story, she remains a significant plot element, as Bigger constantly has flashbacks during stressful times, in which he sees various scenes from her murder.
================================

4)

The book opens with a flashback narrating the death of Ajumobi nine moons ago,what the people say about his death,their experiences and how Yaremi the wife takes it.
Yaremi does not know whether to be happy or sad,but she has all the reasons to be grateful to God because her husband did not die a shameful death.He did not fall from palmtree nor struck by thunder like some people in the village.Tears later roll down her face when she remembers that she will not see her husband again.
Yaremi is now lonely after the death of her husband that the mourners that stay with her leave for their various houses.Her two daughters,Segi and Wura,who used to stay with her are married to their various husbands.Alani her son stays in Ibadan doing his furniture work.Yaremi,being a hardworking woman accepts her fate and faces her work without looking back.
Woye,her grandchild is with her to keep her company and the little boy joins her in arranging her cloth for sale and they also go to the farm together.
================================
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8) THE ROLE OF MATILADA IN THE NOVEL
First and foremost, Matilda, the beautiful and good daughter of Manfred, is intrigued by the portrait of the young Alfonso the Good that hangs her castle. On the other hand, it is clear that she longs for someone like Alfonso in her life. She begins to get to know Theodore when he is imprisoned and realizes that he is a man of quality. Matilda has never been close to her father and is trying to figure out why he is so intent on bringing Isabella back to the castle.

For instance, when all of the men leave the castle to find Isabella , Matilda frees Theodore and insists that he leaves the castle to save his life. She has noticed that Theodore resembles the picture of the former prince, Alfonso, and she falls in love with him. Before Manfred can find Isabella and force her to marry him , a huge entourage of knights and courtiers arrive in search of Isabella. One of the knights, unbeknownst to Manfred, is Frederic, Isabella’s father. When Theodore escapes the castle, he goes to a wood, and finds a cave.

Equally important, he accidentally meets up with Isabella and vows to protect her. In the meantime, all of Manfred’s men and Vincenza, as well, are looking for Isabella. Additionally, Vincenza finds the cave, and Theodore fights with him, nearly mortally wounding the man, without realizing that Vincenza is Isabella’s father.
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KEEP REFRESHING, IT WILL BE POSTED SOON.
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VERIFIED LITERATURE-OBJ
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==================================
6)
Travis represents the future of the Younger family. Hansberry drops some not-too-subtle on us when we hear that one of Travis's favorite pastimes is playing with rats. It kind of sucks when your "future" is hanging out with vermin. Mama and Ruth understand that if they stay living in their crappy apartment, Travis is destined to always settle for less than he deserves. the Younger family will never escape the slums. Travis's father, is planning to take the money from Mr. Lindner to not move into the white neighborhood, Mama insists that Travis stay and watch his father give in to "The Man." Travis's eyes are just too innocent, though, and Walter can't bring himself to do it in front of his son. If Travis saw this, Walter would always feel like a giant tool and a bad father.
==================================

4)
He is the Minister of External Relations and the epitome of corruption in the play. He is the ring leader of acriminal network of drug peddlers. He engages inbribery, large scale embezzlement of public funds,sexual immorality and fraud. His character is ironical.
As a Minister of External Relations, he is supposed to promote his country’s image in the comity of nations. On the contrary, Chief Haladu-Amaka through his many vices portrayed his country in a bad light.
==================================

9)
THE PANIC OF GROWING OLDER
The gigantic hopes that one have at age twenty are uncertain and at the age thirty brings emotional pains due to failures. Even the proof that one will live longer enough to achieve the expectations waiting to be achieved is not certain. As one grows through adulthood, various challenges confront one's endeavors, affecting both the personal expectations and the public expectations,i.e, those things the world and the people around expect a person to achieve as a growing adult. “From now on the world has you” shows that every adult is a captive or a slave to the world; one must impress with achievements to be regarded as a success
i)Uncertainty of human future and expectations
iii)Personal and Public expectations of adulthood
==================================

12)
i)The Ocean
Water water everywhere. And not a drop of it is literal. That's right, folks, in this poem, the ocean is one whopper of a metaphor, representing that Great Gig in the Sky, death.
ii)The Night
Sunset, Twilight. Dark. Yep, that's pretty much how it goes when you die. First, you grow a little older, a little crustier. Then you grow really old and crusty. And finally, you reach the point.
iii)The Sounds
For a poem about death, this one sure is noisy. Mostly, those noises are there to remind us of the human grief that surrounds death, but they're also the death knell itself - a sound to remind.
iv)The Sailing
If the sea represents death, well then sailing represents that long, slow journey toward death. Setting out from the safe harbor of life and into the great unknown of death is the central metaphor.
==================================
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CHEMISTRY ANSWER FOR SEIRRA LEON CANDIDATES ONLY

Chem-Obj
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41BDBABACAAC

Chemistry-Theory

================================

4aii)
i)Improve the standard of living of those in the community
ii)Provide employment for individuals in the community

4aiii)
i)Plastic industry
ii)Ceramics industry

4bi)
i)Sodium chloride
ii)Hot concentrated tetraoxosulphate(vi) acid

4bii)
2NaCl(s) + H2SO4(aq) --> Na2SO4(aq) + 2HCl(g)

4biii)
i)concentrated tetraoxosulphate(vi) acid

4biv)
i)Downward delivery (upward displacement of air)

4bv)
HCL gas about 2.5 times denser than air

4vi)
i)direct combination with ammonia gas to produce dense wit fumes of NH4Cl
ii)Reacts with heated metals

4ci)
The increasing acidic strength down the group of halides can be explained in terms of strength of H-X bonds(where X represents F, Cl, Br, I), which is in the order H-I< H-Br < H-Cl < H-F. Since H-I bond is weakest, therefore, HI is the strongest acid. On the other hand H-F bond is strongest, hence it is the weakest acid among all the halogen acids.

4cii)
Group 1 compounds are more resistant to heat than the corresponding compounds in Group 2.
Lithium compounds often behave similarly to Group 2 compounds, but the rest of Group 1 act differently in various ways.

4di)
This is as result of the respective byproducts produced. Chlorine is a by-product in the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride which has an unpleasant choking smell. While that of molten alumina is oxygen as by-product which is harmless.

4dii)
Na2CO3
================================

3ai)
Electrolytes are substances in either the liquid or molten state that can allow current to pass through them without decomposition.

3aii)
Volume of Cl2 =?
Mass of K = 7.8g
Quantity of electricity Q = 86500×7.8/39
=193000C
Anode reaction: 2Cl ---->Cl2 + 2e
Therefore, volume of Cl2 = 193000×22.4/2×96500
=432320/193000 = 2.24dm³

3bi)
i)The rate of fire ward reaction must be equally to The rate of backwards reaction
ii)The overall heat change must be zero

3bii)
i)The position if equilibrium will shift to the right
ii)The position if equilibrium will shift to the right because the concentration if the reaction has been increased

3ci)
CH3 CH2 CH = CH2

3cii)
CH3 CH2 CH3 and CH3 CH2 CH3

3ciii)
CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH

3d)
The trend in the boiling point of the substances is as the result of the covalent bonds and higher molecular mass
================================

2ai)
Boyle's law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure, provided that the temperature remains constant.

2aii)
Consider a fixed mass of a gas at constant temperature. If the gas volume is decreased, the molecules take less time to travel between the piston and the wall opposite. The molecules therefore hit the walls of the container more often. Therefore the gas pressure increases as more impacts per second are made.

2bi)
Solubility curves are plots of the solubilities of solutes in a given solvent against their respective temperatures.

2bii)
i)Used by pharmacists to determine the amounts of solid drugs that must be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent to give a prescribed drug mixture.
ii)Used for extraction of essential chemicals from various natural sources
iii)Helps in purification of a given mixture of solutes by fractional crystallization

2biii)
i)Amount and concentration of solute
ii)Temperature

2ci)
Efflorescence is the phenomenon of a crystalline salt losing all or part of their water of crystallization on exposure to the atmosphere to form a lower dehydrate or anhydrous salt.

2cii)
Deliquescence is the phenomenon of a compound absorbing a large amount of water on exposure to the atmosphere to form a solution.

2ciii)
Efflorescence --> Washing Soda
Deliquescence --> Sodium hydroxide

2di)
Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> FeCl2(aq) + H2(g)

2dii)
Number of moles present in HCl = molarity × volume
= 2.20 × (50/1000)
= 0.11 moles
From the equation of reaction, mole ratio of Fe : HCl is 1 : 2
Hence, 0.11/2 = 0.055 moles of Fe is required.
Given mass of Fe, m = 3.08g,
Molar mass of Fe = mass/number of moles
= 3.08/0.055
= 56 g/mol
================================

1a)
Graham's law of diffusion states that at a constant temperature and pressure, the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density

1b)
i)change in Pressure
ii)change in Temperature

1c)
3CL2(g) + 6KOH(aq) --> KClO3(aq) + 5KCL(aq) + 3H2O(l)

1d)
i)methanoic acid
ii)Ethanoic acid

1e)
i)Nature of reactants
ii)Temperature of reaction mixture
iii)Presence of catalyst

1f)
i)High melting and boiling points
ii)Hard, dense and lustrous
iii)Good conductors of heat and electricity

1g)
Given: V1 = 153cm³, V2 = ?, T1 = 21°C (294K) , T2 = 45°C (318K)
At constant pressure, Charles law is:
V1/T1 = V2/T2
153/294 = V2/318
Cross multiplying,
294V2 = 153 × 318
294V2 = 48654
V2 = 48654/294
V2 = 165.5 cm³

1h)
i)A normal salt is that which is formed when all the replaceable hydrogen ions in an acid have been completely replaced by metallic ions.
ii)An example of a normal salt is *NaCl* formed from HCl and NaOH

1i)
i)Greater resistance to chemical attack than their constituent metals
ii)Higher tensile strength
1ji)
The basicity is two(2)
1jii)
H2SO3(aq) --> 2H^+(aq) + SO3²-(aq)
================================
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Chemistry-Theory

1a)
Standard hydrogen electrode This is an electrode system which is normally used as a reference electrode, it is formed when hydrogen gas at 25c and pressure of 1 atm is bubbled through onr molar (1M) of Hcl.

1b)
Metals are good reducing agent because the are electro donors (metal ionizes by loss of electron)

1c)
i)Diamond is used in jewelry because they resist chemical attack and high temperature.
ii)Diamond is used as abrassive because they are dense and hard.
iii)Diamond is a non conductor of electricity because they lack free valence electron

1di)
Chemical change: this is a change which is irreversible and new substances are formed. They are mainly in form of chemical reaction.

1dii)
example of chemical change.
I)rusting of iron
II)reaction of acid and Base to form salt and water

1e)
isotope: these are elements with the same atomic number but different mass number or atomic mass.

1f)
a weak acid is a substance which does not ionize or dissociate completely in solution. While a dilute acid is an acid with lower concentration, a dilute acid is formed when water is added to concentrated acid

1g)
PH: this is the negative logarithm to the base ten(10) of hydrogen concentration
Ph= -log10^H+

1h)
i)It causes formation of acid rain
ii)It causes photochemical smog and ozone layer depletion

1i)
Cl2 + Mgbr2 -> MgCl2 + Br2

1fi)
By simple diffusion

1fii)
Oxidation of the ethanol can be prevented by the removal of oxidizing agent such as Kmno4 or K2Cr2 or by the addition of lithium tetrahydrido aluminate(iii)
================================

(2ai) it's a group of atoms or type of bond possessed by certain organic compounds making them have some or similar chemical properties.

(2aii)
I. Ester
II. Ethyl ethanorate

(2bi)
(I). Unsaturated hydrocarbon
(II). Alkanol
(III). Alkanoic Acid

(2bii)
(i) Acidified KMnO4 turns from purple to colourless
(ii) A sweet smelling compound is produced
(iii) Effervescence occurs with colourless odourless gas that turns lime water milky being evolved

(2ci)
I. O
II. -1 and +1

(2cii)
I. 4H+ + No3— +3e— >NO + 2H2O
II. Mass/molar mass = It/πe— * 96500c
0.5/197 = 0.8*t/3*96500
t= 0.5*3*96500/197*0.8
t = 918.46s

(2di) Group 2
(II) X3N2
(III) Beryllium
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4ai)
The law of conservation of matter states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another

(4aii)
(i) Gases are randomly in a straight line colliding with one another and to the volume of the cylinder
(ii) The volume occupied by the gas molecules are highly negligible when compared to the volume of the container
(iii) The collision between the gas molecules are perfectly elsatic

(4b)
(i)Producer gas(Mixture of CO and N2)
(ii)Water gas(Mixture of CO and H2)
(iii)H2)(g)+C(s)->CO(g)+H2(g)

(4ci)
(I)Benzene
(II)Carbon II Sulphide
(III)Tarpentine

(4cii)
There will be the formation of metanol.The reaction is endothermic reaction

(4di)
CaCO3->CaO+CO2

(4dii)
(I) p=120Nm^-2=118.81atm
V=0.25dm^3
R=8.314JKmol^-1
T=25C+273=298K
Using PV=nRT
=>n=PV/RT=(118.81*10^-5*0.25)/(8.314*298)
But n=mass/molar mass
=(29.7025*10^-5*)/(2477.572)
=>Mass of gaseous product=44.29.7025*10^-5/2477.572
=527*10^-6g

(II)
From the reaction, the moles of CaCo3 is the same as the mole of Co2; the number of moles of CaCo3
= 1.198*10^-7mole
But moles = mass/molar mass
Mass = moles × molar mass
Mass = 1.198×10^-7×100
= 119.8×10^-7
= 1.198×10^-5 moles
===================================

5a)
chlorine
/ammonia
/hydrogen-
chloride gas/carbon(II) oxide/sulphur(IV)oxide/nitrogen(IV) oxide

5ai)
because they are poisonous/
have offensive smell
/are dangerous to health

5aii)
1 Fused Calcium chloride is used in the manufacturing of plastics
2 Fused calcium chloride and the production of calcium salt. It is used in the production of concrete..
3 Fused Calcium chloride accelerates the curing (drying) speed of poured concrete.
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SECTION B; ANSWER 2 QUESTIONS ONLY

6)
i)Regulating trade by fixing price for essential commodities
ii)Deciding on days for religious ceremonies and carrying them out
iii)Trying offenders and ensuring that the punishment imposed on them are carried out
iv)Organising age groups and assigning duties to them
v)Negotiating peace with neighbours as well as planning for and engaging in war
====================================

(7)
(i) Evil practices thrived: Most of the traditional rulers were involved in evil practices and the system does not prosecute them for necessary punishment
(ii) It excluded educated Nigerians: The educated Nigerians were excluded from taking part in the colonial administration instead they made use of illitrates
(iii) Development was retarded: Indirect rule was an instrument in maintainning status quo than of development.progress and development were relatively very low especially in the northern part of the country
(iv) Appointment of warrant chiefs: The traditional institutions of the people were neglected and colonial authority appoint warrant chiefs that merely represented the interest of those that appointed them
(v) Monopoly: The colonial authority monopolised the right to appoint and depose traditional rulers and chiefs without people's consent
====================================
SECTION A ; ANSWER 2 QUESTIONS ONLY

2a)
Presidential System of Government is one in which there is an executive President, that is, someone vested with all executive powers and who combines the office of head of state and head of government.

2b)
i)In Presidential System of Government, the President is both the head of state and head of government, and exercises real executive powers.
ii)The President and legislators remain in office for a fixed term.
iii)The President is not chosen by the legislature, but is elected by the electorate directly, or indirectly through an electoral college.
iv)The principle of collective responsibility, which obtains in a cabinet system of government does not apply in a Presidential System of Government.

====================================

1a)
Communalism refers to a system that integrates communal ownershipand federationsof highly localised independent communities.

1b)
i)There is collective ownership of the resources.
ii)There is the opportunity for individuals to participate in community development.
iii)Absence of division of class.
iv)There is opportunity for individuals to participate in decision making.